You enzyme possesses a unique sequence of amino acids

 You hear the word “Enzyme” nowadays,
and very often you see posters and ads with a word “enzyme” on it.
Even everyday products such as washing detergents have enzymes on it. But what
is “enzyme” and why it is important in our living?Well right now, as you read this, there are billions of
chemical reactions happening inside your body. Although they happen at
lightning speed inside cells, when these reactions are run inside test-tubes
they happen at a snail’s pace. What explains this difference in speed? What do
our cells have, that a test-tube lacks? The answer is enzymes!

enzymes are proteins and biological catalysts that act as
catalysts in a chemical or biochemical reaction with a defined mechanism within
the living cell. they also increase the speed of the reaction faster than the
reaction that does  not include a catalyst,
and by talking about speeding up the rate of reaction enzymes speed up the rate
of reaction by lowering the activation energy . in fact that catalysts increase
the rate at which chemical reactions occur without being consumed or
permanently changed or altered themselves.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

like all proteins, enzymes are composed of one or more
chains of interconnected amino acids. each enzyme possesses a unique sequence
of amino acids that causes it to fold into a characteristics shape . the
enzyme’s amino  acid is determined by a
specific gene in the nucleus of the cell, and it makes sure that each copy of
the enzyme is like the others. indeed  on
the surface of the each enzyme there is a specific cleft and it’s called the
active side, and it provides a place where reagents can meet and interact with
each others.

An enzyme called “Ferrochelatase”
brings the reagents together, catalyzes their union, and releases an
iron-containing molecule. Keep in mind that enzymes can combine
reagents , they can split a single reagent into multiple
products, or they can simply transform a single reagent into a single
product that looks different from the original reagent. When reagents
enter an enzyme’s active site, the enzyme undergoes a temporary change in
shape that encourages interaction between the reagents. Upon completion of
the chemical reaction, a specific product is released from the active
site, the enzyme resumes its original conformation, and the reaction
can begin again with new reagents. 
Many enzymes are incorporated into metabolic
pathways. A metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions that
transform one or more reagents into an end-product that’s needed by the
cell. The enzymes in a metabolic pathway–much like people passing a pail
of water along a bucket brigade–move a reagent along until the end-product is
produced. A metabolic pathway can be quite short, or it can have many
steps and multiple enzymes and also many any coenzymes are derived from
vitamins. In fact, one of the main reasons you need vitamins in your
diet is to supply the raw material for essential coenzymes. 

We can’t imagine our life
without enzymes because they play a very important role in our lives because
enzymes are essential to sustain life. It work together cooperating with
vitamins and minerals and act as a catalyst to accelerate chemical reaction
because most chemical reactions in biological cells would occur too
slowly. Neither a human being nor an animal can live without enzymatic
function. As it were the leading part of the life activities and it is the
source. 

There are  a lot types of enzymes. there are Metabolic
enzymes and they are responsible for speeding up reactions for the cells to
produce energy. meaning that every single cell in our bodies depends completely
on enzymes.  A second type of enzymes are
Food enzymes, well they are not only something exclusive to the human body, it
just happens that raw food that we eat naturally contains enzymes , also keep
in mind that cooking or processing many times can kill most of the natural
enzymes found in food which is why for the most part it’s best to eat your
fruits and veggies raw to get the most benefits. and the last type is Digestive
enzymes and these are probably the most common ones and can be found along the
gastrointestinal tract since this is where digestion happens in the body and
they are responsible for breaking down food into nutrients and wastes. if the
food we eat isn’t well digested then the nutrients will not be absorbed, and
this is when we can experience gastrointestinal discomfort along with nutrient
deficiencies.

Enzymes have been used in many kinds of detergents
for over 30 years since they were first introduced by Novozymes. Traditional
use of enzymes in laundry detergents involved those that degrade proteins
causing stains, such as those found in grass stains, red wine, and soil.

Lipases are another useful class of enzymes that
can be used to dissolve fat stains and clean grease traps or other fat-based
cleaning applications.

Currently, a popular area of research is the
investigation of enzymes that can tolerate, or even have higher activities, in
hot and cold temperatures. The search for thermotolerant and cryotolerant
enzymes has spanned the globe. These enzymes are especially desirable for
improving laundry processes in hot water cycles and/or at low temperatures for
washing colors and darks. They are also useful for industrial processes where
high temperatures are required, or for bioremediation under harsh conditions
Recombinant enzymes are being sought using different DNA technologies such as
site-directed mutagenesis and DNA shuffling.

and finally to advantages and disadvantages for
using or including enzymes in the detergents.

advantages:

Enzymes in biological detergents are effective at
removing stains.  They can be used at lower temperatures which saves
money on energy for the consumer and means that less electricity needs to
be generated
Some enzymes are used in medicine to diagnose, control
or cure diseases
In industry, the cost of equipment and energy can be
reduced

disadvantages:

If people misuse the biological detergents they may
have allergic reactions on their skin.  You should not place your
hands in the water once the powder has dissolved as the enzymes are
enclosed in capsules in the dry powder
Enzymes can enter waterways via the sewage system
Industrial enzymes are quite expensive to produce
Enzymes denature at high temperatures needed to kill
pathogens while washing
Some fabrics such as wool are digested by proteases

and detergents that includes enzymes has an effect
on our environment and the human health, well first thing that Phosphate-containing detergents can
create algae blooms in fresh water. These in turn use up the oxygen available
for aquatic life, according to “Lenntech”, a water treatment
facilities corporation affiliated with the Technical University at Delft, the
Netherlands. This problem occurs because phosphorous and nitrogen from
detergents are nutrients that stimulate excessive growth of algae and other
aquatic vegetation, reports the Indiana University News Room. Nutrient loading
with phosphates from laundry and dishwasher detergents, as well as from
suburban lawn chemicals, can lead to eutrophication, a process by which a
freshwater aquatic ecosystem slowly dies due to continual oxygen depletion. The
volume of detergent packaging heading to landfills, given the weekly purchase
of detergent-based household products by a significant portion of consumers,
creates an enormous environmental impact. The European branch of the
International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products
announced in 2009 an industry-wide initiative to reduce detergent packaging by
manufacturing smaller packages of more concentrated detergent products.
American consumers have also noticed smaller laundry and dishwashing detergent
packages on their supermarket shelves. The industry association notes that, to
be successful, this packaging-reduction strategy will require consumers to
carefully read the labels and cut down on the quantity of detergent used;
significantly less is required for the same cleaning ability because of the new
concentrated formulas.
The result may be a facade, but the chemical dangers from these products are
very real. Studies have shown these agents are extremely toxic to fish and can
cause mutations in bacteria. They can also trigger strong allergic reactions in
humans when exposed to sunlight.
Bleach: A traditional household cleaner, bleach has harmful side effects that
have been known for decades. Bleach, or sodium hypochlorite, is a leading cause
of poisoning in the home.