We Human in which he discusses the concept of

We wake up in the morning, get ready to go to work or school and we leave our house or apartment to be at a place where there are several people. We do not think about people and their races consciously, it is a subconscious thought and this thought could lead to several things. Some individuals can view others as fellow human beings while others view them as less than human or even people who do not deserve to be where they are right now. It might not be the first thought that crosses our minds but it crosses our mind subconsciously. We do not act or behave in a way where we make them feel like they are different from us because doing so seems to be morally wrong. We all have the ability to dehumanize but we do not because it is morally wrong. David Livingstone Smith, a professor of philosophy at the University of New England, supports this claim. Smith wrote a book called Less Than Human in which he discusses the concept of dehumanization in depth. Alan Page Fiske, a professor of anthropology at the University of California, Los Angeles is known for studying the nature of human relationships and cross-culture variations between them. Tage Shakti Rai is a Post?Doctoral Research Fellow in the Center for Global Citizenship, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University. Both, Fiske and Rai, came together and wrote a book called Virtuous Violence in which they claim that violence is morally motivated. They try to understand what drives humans to hurt others or even themselves. The authors of Virtuous Violence argue that most violence is caused by the surfeit of morality and that humans are an intrinsically moral creature. Fiske and Rai start off the book by stating that they believe violence is immoral. They answer the question: Why and when are people violent? Many people may think that most of the violence comes from frustration, lack of individual self-control, moral disengagement, dehumanization, infrahumanization, and etcetera. ¬†However, according to the authors, people become violent because they are morally motivated to. People believe that “in many cases hurting or killing others is not simply justifiable, it is absolutely, fundamentally right.” Their moral motives, their perception of their obligations and commitments allow them to believe this. Even though the author does not think that a human is displaying their humanity by becoming violent, they believe that that is what perpetrators believe.The authors, Alan Page Fiske and Tage Shakti Rai, define violence as an action in which the “perpetrator regards inflicting pain, suffering, fear, distress, injury, ¬†maiming, disfigurement, or death as the intrinsic, necessary, or desirable means to intended ends.” In other words, violence is a moral action; perpetrators know they are harming human agents and this is precisely what they mean to do. Merriam Webster dictionary defines moral as of or relating to the principles of right and wrong behavior. However, Fiske and Rai define moral as an action used to constitute, create or regulate social relationships. The people committing the violence believe that what they are doing is morally right and that they are morally motivated to participate in such actions.There is a discussion about the people committing the violence do not necessarily enjoy doing it in Chapter Seven and Chapter Fourteen. Out of all the people participating in the violence there are only a handful who actually enjoy engaging in such activities. Fiske and Rai believe that those people are usually psychopaths and sadists. Since the perpetrator is participating in violent activities there is a chance there there will be an effect on them; for some it can be short term and for others it can be long term. The effect of the violence depends on the perpetrator, if they believe what they are doing is right there will not necessarily be affected. Others who don’t really think what they are doing is right, will feel good in the moment but will later realize what they did which can cause them to have some kind of trauma. To ensure that the smallest amount of perpetrators are affected, they can be trained to be violent and eventually it will become habitual to them. They will not see anything wrong with it. The perpetrators who do not go through the training, conduct violent actions despite their aversion to it. Since the perpetrators overcome their selfish motives and did the right thing, they are considered to be more virtuous. Even though participating in violence could be difficult, perpetrator choose to judge what they are doing as something they have to do, something they must do because then are entitled to do so.