This type of tourism is based on tourism which

This type of tourism is based on tourism which involves encounters with non-domestic animals. These encounters can happen in captivity of the animals or in their natural habitat. There are non-consumptive activities such as feeding, viewing, and photography, also capturing or killing animals.Wildlife tourism can also be put into three categories: – Hunting tourism- Wildlife-watching tourism- Fishing tourism- Captive-wildlife tourismReynolds and Braithwaite (2001) identified other categories than the ones that were identified by Higginbottom (2004); they identified wildlife tourism products:- Specialist animal watching- Locations with good wildlife opportunities- Thrill-offering tours- Artificial attractions based on wildlife- Habitat-specific tours- Nature-based tourism with a wildlife component- Fishing/hunting toursBut is wildlife tourism ethical? This type of tourism has a more negative side to it than a positive side. According to Higginbottom (2004), there are positive sides and negative sides to wildlife tourism. Positive aspects (Higginbottom, Northrope & Green, 2001)- Financial contributions – Non-financial contributions – Socio-economic incentives for conservation – Education Negative aspects (Higginbottom, 2004)- By coming in contact with humans; the wild animals behave differently; avoidance, acceptance of the presence of humans, attraction – Short-term changes in the physiology of individual animals which causes reduced breeding success.Bentrupperbäummer (2005) argues that human-wildlife relations are necessary to understand this type of tourism. However, it does not mean that this type of tourism is ethical, just because it has positive aspects to it. Since the positive points only relate to the educational aspects a visitor gets from wildlife tourism, it also contributes to their satisfaction; because they can get close to wildlife. (Moscardo and Salzer, 2004). For example, elephant riding. It is one of the biggest wildlife attractions for tourists in Nepal, Thailand, Cambodia and other parts of Asia. Visitors are mostly from the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom (Kontogeorgopoulos, 2009). Elephant riding also begins to grow in some regions in Africa. Elephants are the largest land mammal; they are social animals. As they are the largest land mammal, and the opportunity to ride on them is given; tourists take this chance. However, these animals are not treated rightly, and no respect is given to them. They are wild animals and should not be treated as domestic animals; which is why it is difficult to provide the right conditions for the elephants. It is also proven that elephants die younger in captivity than in wild, unlike other species. This is because; poor health and biological stress. Unlike other animals, elephants have to be trained in order for tourist to ride on them. And this training is pure torture for these animals. This type of training is called “phajaan” which literally means “crushing” or “spirit-breaking”. The spirits of these young animals are broken through this type of training. It starts with taking an elephant from their mother at the age of two or three and follows by entrapping them in a small confine. In the small confine, the young elephants are abused with bullhooks and bamboo sticks spiked with nails. The young animals are also starved and do not get any rest time. According to Bradshaw (n.d.), there is also a different type of phajaan, which the elephant is fastened to ropes between two mahout-ridden elephants and forced to walk until the young elephant collapses. This is the point where the animal does not have any strength to resist and is helpless.Tourists often think that these large land mammals can carry our weight, however, these animals are not designed to carry people on their back. Carrying tourists on their back can lead to permanent spinal injuries. Yet, this is not the only reason why it would cause the elephants injuries, but the chair attached to their back; can cause blisters. Tourists do not think about the animals, as they think they have no feelings. However, these elephants do have feelings, since they are social animals. They feel happiness, pain, and many other emotions. Most of the time these elephants have trauma’s: attachment rupture, physical and psychological torture, socio-emotional deprivation, chronic hunger and constricted movement, chronic physical exhaustion (Bradshaw, n.d.).Some of the tourists think they are helping the locals by giving money for elephant riding. Although, one thing they do not know is; the money often goes to the hotels, travel agents, and guides. Therefore, the money they give to the locals, do not go into the pockets of the locals. Consequently, this leads to the elephants in Asia being endangered species. This just shows us, that elephant riding is just pure torture for these animals, which will lead to their death, which again causes the animals to be endangered. Unfortunately, elephant riding is not the only problem in wildlife tourism, as there are many more. Whether it is riding elephants, taking selfies with tigers, or performing dolphin shows, these activities can cause long-term distress for wild animals. Therefore, I do not think that wildlife tourism is ethical. As a tourist, student and future professional I feel responsible. As a student, you should know what happens in the world and what not to only look at the positive side, but to try to find the negative sides that are not being shown. As a tourist, you should do some research about the destination you are going to. For example, if you as a tourist go to Thailand, you should look for information about the country and what attractions are right to do and what is not right to do. As a future professional, I feel the most responsible, because right now I know about the negative sides of tourism. To develop tourism further; this type of tourism, so wildlife tourism, should be gone. Every type of wildlife tourism; where humans come in contact with wild animals should be stopped, no animals should be taken off their natural habitat for the joy of humans.

This type of
tourism is based on tourism which involves encounters with non-domestic animals.
These encounters can happen in captivity of the animals or in their natural
habitat. There are non-consumptive activities such as feeding, viewing, and
photography, also capturing or killing animals.

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Wildlife tourism
can also be put in three categories:

–       
Hunting tourism

–       
Wildlife-watching tourism

–       
Fishing tourism

–       
Captive-wildlife tourism

Reynolds and
Braithwaite (2001) identified other categories than the ones that were
identified by Higginbottom (2004); they identified wildlife tourism products:

 

–       
Specialist animal watching

–       
Locations with good wildlife opportunities

–       
Thrill-offering tours

–       
Artificial attractions based on wildlife

–       
Habitat specific tours

–       
Nature-based tourism with a wildlife component

–       
Fishing/hunting tours

But is wildlife
tourism ethical? This type of tourism has a more negative side to it than a
positive side. According to Higginbottom (2004) there are positive sides and
negative sides to wildlife tourism.

 

Positive aspects
(Higginbottom, Northrope & Green, 2001)

–       Financial contributions

–       Non-financial contributions

–       Socio-economic incentives for conservation

–       Education

Negative aspects
(Higginbottom, 2004)

–       By coming in contact with humans; the wild animals behave differently;
avoidance, acceptance of the presence of humans, attraction  

–       Short-term changes in physiology of individual animals which causes
reduced breeding success.

Bentrupperbäummer
(2005) argues that human-wildlife relations are necessary to understand this
type of tourism. However, it does not mean that this type of tourism is
ethical, just because it has positive aspects to it. Since, the positive points
only relate to the educational aspects a visitor gets from wildlife tourism, it
also contributes to their satisfaction; because they can get close to wildlife.
(Moscardo and Salzer, 2004).

 

For example,
elephant riding. It is one of the biggest wildlife attractions for tourists in
Nepal, Thailand, Cambodja and other parts of Asia. Visitors are mostly from the
United States, Australia and the United Kingdom (Kontogeorgopoulos, 2009). Elephant
riding also begins to grow in some regions in Africa. Elephants are the largest
land mammal; they are social animals. As they are the largest land mammal, and
the opportunity to ride on them is given; tourists take this chance. However,
these animals are not treated rightly, and no respect is given to them. They
are wild animals and should not be treated as domestic animals; which is why it
is difficult to provide the right conditions for the elephants. It is also
proven that elephants die younger in captivity than in wild unlike other
species. This is because; poor health and biological stress.

 

Unlike other
animals, elephants have to be trained in order for tourist to ride on them. And
this training is pure torture for these animals. This type of training is
called “phajaan” which literally means “crushing” or “spirit breaking”. The
spirits of these young animals are broken through this type of training. It
starts with taking an elephant from their mother at the age of two or three and
follows by entrapping them in a small confine. In the small confine, the young
elephants are abused with bull hooks and bamboo sticks spiked with nails. The
young animals are also starved and do not get any rest time. According to
Bradshaw (n.d.) there is also a different type of phajaan, which the elephant
is fastened to ropes between two mahout-ridden elephants and forced to walk
until the young elephant collapses. This is the point where the animal does not
have any strength to resist and is helpless.

 

Tourists often
think that these large land mammals can carry our weight, however these animals
are not designed to carry people on their back. Carrying tourists on their back
can lead to permanent spinal injuries. Yet, this is not the only reason why it
would cause the elephants injuries, but the chair attached to their back; can
cause blisters. Tourists do not think about the animals, as they think they
have no feelings. However, these elephants do have feelings, since they are
social animals. They feel happiness, pain and many other emotions. Most of the
time these elephants have trauma’s: attachment rupture, physical and
psychological torture, socio-emotional deprivation, chronic hunger and
constricted movement, chronic physical exhaustion (Bradshaw, n.d.).

 

Some of the
tourists think they are helping the locals by giving money for elephant riding.
Although, one thing they do not know is; the money often goes to the hotels,
travel agents, and guides. Therefore, the money they give to the locals, do not
go into the pockets of the locals.

 

Consequently, this
leads to the elephants in Asia being endangered species. This just shows us,
that elephant riding is just pure torture for these animals, which will lead to
their death, which again causes the animals to be endangered. Unfortunately,
elephant riding is not the only problem in wildlife tourism, as there are many
more. Whether it is riding elephants, taking selfies with tigers, or performing
dolphin shows, these activities can cause long-term distress for wild animals.
Therefore, I do not think that wildlife tourism is ethical.

 

As a tourist,
student and future professional I feel responsible. As a student, you should
know what happens in the world and what not to only look at the positive side,
but to try to find the negative sides that are not being shown. As a tourist,
you should do some research about the destination you are going to. For
example, if you as a tourist go to Thailand, you should look for information
about the country and what attractions are right to do and what is not right to
do. As a future professional I feel the most responsible, because right now I
know about the negative sides of tourism. To develop tourism further; this type
of tourism, so wildlife tourism, should be gone. Every type of wildlife
tourism; where humans come in contact with wild animals should be stopped, no
animals should be taken of their natural habitat for the joy of humans.