There are a few studies that worked
on parental involvement in English language learning (Al-Mahrooqi, Denman,
& Al-Maamari, 2016, Niehaus, 2012). This issue is given slight attention in
Iranian context especially in English language education. In the EFL context of
Iran, Pourrajab (2015) investigated the relationship between school climate and
parental involvement in schools based on teachers’ perception. The findings in
her research showed that the school environment is suitable, but the level of
parental involvement is average. The study identified some useful points for
teachers, principals, and parents to involve more parents in school process.
However, when the school climate at a school is not welcoming, parents may not
become involved. When schools make positive efforts in involving parents from
diverse backgrounds, they create a relationship that will in the end be
effective for the child, parent, and the school (Brown & Medway, 2007;
Dauber & Epstein, 1993).
The Public School Review published a
research article written by Grace Chen on the positive results of parental
influence on student academics. Chen
concluded that: Increase in parental involvement
leads to an increase in academic achievement, better classroom behavior and
conduct, greater self-esteem, increased motivation and attitude towards school,
lower rate of absenteeism, and increased school satisfaction for students.
Bempechat (1992) concludes that when teachers and educational administrators
are strongly committed to drawing parents into their children’s education, the
academic out comes for children’s can be very positive
In another study, Hwa (2016)
explored how parental variables such as parental involvement, attribution,
education, and income influence performance of Korean youths. This study
suggests that not only parental involvement in home-based and school
based-activities, but also private tutoring-based activities, were positively
associated with Korean middle school students’ achievement. Vygotsky’s social
constructivist approach emphasizes the social contexts in individual’s learning
and views cognitive developments as a result of social interactions. In other
words, parents’ beliefs and expectations gradually transfer to their children
in daily interactions and it highlights the importance of Parents’ cultural and
psychological beliefs influence on children’s development (Vygotsky, 2004).
Stanikzai (2013) argued that the
reasons for which teachers contact parents largely deal with issues such as
child’s absence and problem with behaviors and performance. Inviting parents
via messages or phone calls were the contact ways selected by teachers. The
research identified the need for schools to proactively encourage parental
involvement through making the existing structures such as SMS more active and
equally accessible to both mothers and fathers.
According to Jeynes (2005a),
teachers and parents need to partner together in helping children reach their
potential. The teacher should keep in mind that the child is parents’ offspring
and consider that he/she is working alongside the parents to help the students
in their education (Jeynes, 2005b, 2007). In an analytical essay that
summarizes the recent research on the influence of subtle aspects of parental
involvement, Jeynes concluded that there are deliberate actions that teachers
can take to enhance parental involvement. They can educate parents to
comprehend important subtle aspects of parental involvement such as high
expectations. They can also educate school leaders, teachers, and staff that
demonstrations of love and respect may be more important than instructing different
methods of helping children. He declares
that the spirit and the attitude of parental involvement may actually be more
important than the pedagogy applied at home. Ultimately, teachers, students,
and parents will all benefit from this development.
The literature on parental
engagement is extensive. In recent years, studies revealed a significant and
positive relationship between parental involvements and the schooling of their
children’s academic achievement (Kimaro & Machumu, 2015; Zhou, 2014). A majority of studies have focused on the
possible relationships between parental engagement and students’ achievements.
It’s concluded that parents’ involvement in educational processes has
outstanding influences on the final outcome (Jeynes 2005; Hill & Taylor
2004; Hill & Tyson 2009; Avvisati, Besbas, & Guyon 2010; Kimaro &
Machumu, 2015; Manilal, 2014).
In the research conducted by Mapp
and Henderson, (2002) they examined parent and community involvement and their
roles in impacting on student achievement. Through their review on parental
involvement, previous studies declared that all families can, and often do,
have a positive influence on their children’s learning. Warner (2002) described
parental involvement (PI) as the participation of caretakers in the child’s
educational life. Hence, parents contribute a great deal to their kids’
lifelong education and they must be aware of their crucial role.
Epstein (2009) divided types of
involvement activities into two groups. Some of them could influence students’
skills, achievement, and test scores while other types of involvement may
influence attitudes, attendance, and behavior. She explained that practices
should meet the needs of the students, families, and community because poorly
designed involvement activities could have a negative result.
Joyce Epstein, director of the
Center on School, Family, and Community Partnerships at Johns Hopkins
University, is one of the leading experts in the field of parental involvement.
She and Sanders stated that “More will be accomplished if schools, families,
and communities work together to promote successful students.” (Epstein &
Sanders, 2000, p. 1).Epstein (1991), in her study, looked into student
achievement in 14 classrooms of elementary school teachers who used varying
techniques to involve parents in learning activities at home. The author found
a positive and significant effect on student reading achievement. In 1992, she
developed a framework for defining six different types of parent involvement.
This model which is called Epstein’s Framework of Parent Involvement assists
educators in developing school and family partnership programs. Epstein
introduced six types of parental involvement, namely, Parenting, Communicating,
Supporting school, Learning at home, Decision making, and Collaborating with
Different models have been developed
for parental involvement. Lombana and Lombana (1982) discussed the home-school
partnership model that explains four different areas of support that parents
may need from school counselors. The model is explained as a triangle with four
levels stacked on top of each other. At the bottom level is parent involvement,
then parent conferences, parent education, and parent counseling at the top.
The second model was the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler’s model of parental
involvement which includes five levels to examine parent involvement and how to
increase it in school. Parent perceptions of involvement, types of parental
involvement, student perception of the learning methods utilized by parents
during involvement, and the fourth and fifth have to do with outcome measures
surrounding student achievement.
Parents play a critical role in
providing learning opportunities at home as well as linking what children learn
at school with what happens elsewhere. By participating in and
facilitating diverse learning experiences and activities outside
the school, parents
become an important factor in children’s overall learning and
education (Emerson, Fear, Fox, & Sanders, 2012). Parental involvement in
school-related decisions has become a major educational issue since the 1980’s
and there is now an extensive amount of research indicating that PI is
advantageous for children of all ages (Cox 2005; Desforges & Abouchaar
2003; Eccles & Harold 1993; Epstein 2001).