The great advantages to the other refractories goods (bricks).

 

 The impact of Nano-technology on recent advances in shapeless refractories: A review  
Heidar Ali* 1Department of Materials Science, UNSW University, Australia
*Corresponding Author, Tel: +98
9133330848, E-mail address: [email protected]      
Abstract: In recent years, the use of Nano-technology (Nano-particles,
Nano-material and Nano-additives) has attracted attention of scholars,
engineers, and scientists in all scientific fields such as chemistry, medicine,
material, agriculture, electric, and etc. The use of Nano-technology has also
become widespread in the refractories products (which mainly used by
various industries such
as steel, casting, cement, glass, and etc.). So, some researchers
have examined the effect of using different types and contents of
Nano-materials (oxides and non-oxides) on the properties of shaped (bricks) and
un-shaped (shapeless) refractories
products and they have attained very interesting results.  One of the most consumable refractory goods in different industries is shapeless refractories, which has been widely used because of their
great advantages to the other refractories goods (bricks). Hence, in this research, recent progresses in shapeless refractories by Nano-technology are mentioned. This article can be used as a complete reference and guidance for Scientific’s, students and
artisans   for easy access to experimental research results of the
impact of Nano-technology on shapeless refractories.

 Keywords: Nano-technology, Nano particles, Refractory, shapeless
                    
        

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

 

 

 
1.    Introduction:

1.2. Nanotechnology
(Introduction):

 The Nano-technology phrase originating from
two words consist of the Greek numerical prefix nano referring to a billionth and the technology word 1-2. As an outcome,
Nano-technology or Nano-scaled technology is commonly considered to be at a
size under 100 nm (a Nano-meter is 10-9 m) 1-2.  
2.      Refractories: 2.1. Introduction:  
According to the ASTM C 71 , the refractories are a “non-metallic
materials having those physical and chemical properties that lead to them
applicable for structures or as components of systems that are exposed to
environments above 1000 °F (538°C)
11, 16. Also, some references mentioned
that refractories are
in-organic non-metallic material which can withstand high temperature without
changing in their chemical or physical
properties while remaining in contact with molten slag, metal and gases 11-13, 16-20.
As well as, according to the operating situation, they should to have high thermal shock resistant, be chemically inert, and  have definedranges of thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient 11- 21, 22. It is clear that refractories have an
important role in glassmaking, metallurgical, and ceramic industries, where they are generated into a variety of shapes to line the interiors of furnaces or kilns or other devices for processing the materials at
high temperatures 23-25. Some of the technological and scientific inventions and progresses would
not have been possible withoutrefractory materials.
Producing 1Kg of any metal without
utilize of refractory is almost quite impracticable 26-29.The history of using refractory materials dates back to since mankind start to develop metallurgical process. The
firstrefractor raw material was clay. Up to the nineteenth century, refractory products were made of natural ores, such asmagnesite, dolomite stones and clay.it
was at the end of the eighteenth century and beginning of nineteenth century
that the basis of modern metal beneficiation, the development of Portland
cement and of modern glass processes started to inflict higher requirements to the refractory
industry 30-33. The main
materials used in the
producing ofrefractories are based
to Fig.1 34-36. In recent years, with the changing trends in steelmaking, the
high performing shaped refractories are
on an increasing demand. The
higher campaign lives and the mutability
of the newer steelmaking operations are decided by the accessibility
and performance of such shaped
refractories with superior high-temperature mechanical strength, erosion and corrosion resistance the selection of refractories to be utilized is often according to the conditions dominating in the application zone 36-40.   2.2