p.p1 J. Edgar Hoover’s Testimony to Congress and the

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Many people in today’s society believe that World War II ended when the Japanese finally decided to resign from its partnering countries. Despite the fact that World War II had just been completed, the Cold War was just starting to begin. The cold war did not only leave Americans struggling to find common grounds when it came to creating a liberal society it was also a battle between different civilizations and society’s.  Nevertheless the battle between the Soviet Union and the United States which changed many political views. In the book “The Age of McCarthyism A Brief History With Documents” written by Ellen Schrecker, she talks about two articles, one called J. Edgar Hoover’s Testimony to Congress and the other called Sidney Hook’s “Cold War Liberal View of the Communist Threat.” Each of these Authors talk bout the threat of the communist party/ movement in America during the Cold War using different methods and arguments. Both authors created suggestions on about the communist movement using different approaches through compare and contrast. J. Edgar Hoovers testimony to Congress talks about the communist movement and how he feels that the underlying goals, ideas, and beliefs are one big conspiracy. On the other hand Sidney Hook believes that the communist movement is not only a conspiracy but also a set of unpopular beliefs.
Sidney Hook believes that being able to recognize the difference between a heresy and a conspiracy is vital to a liberal civilization. Hook defines a heresy as set of unpopular ideas compared to a conspiracy which is a secret or undercover movement that undergoes illegal actions to obtain its political process. Consequently this displays how a conspiracy is an operation that wants to take over a stable government through the utilization of prohibited tactics. Sidney Hook sees the communist movement as it epitomizes a heresy instead if a conspiracy. He feels that characterizing the communist movement as a heresy eliminates that it being a conspiracy.  Furthermore, J. Edgar Hoover believes that the communist party is one big conspiracy that is trying to take over the United States government. He claimed that the communist movement is a menace to freedom, independence, libertarian ideals,  worship of god and the American life style.(Page 133) Hook views the communist ideas as unpopular and that liberals should have no fear of them whether they are openly expressed or not (page 256) However, the communist movement is different that just an unpopular idea to Sidney Hook, its something a lot more intricate that prevails and runs along the lines pursued by Lenin as a guide to all communist countries. (PAGE 256) J. Edgar Hoover also sees the communist movement always coming back to the fundamentals of Marxism Leninism but he believes the movement stands for destruction, of our American form of government, democracy and free enterprise. Hoover criticizes the communist movement as it also stands for the beginning of the “Soviet of the United State” a global revolution, where as Sidney Hook supports its hidden goals. Hook also underlines the duty of toughness and accused the “ritualistic liberals” who criticized the threat of the communist conspiracy. (page 263)  Hoover feels that the communist conspiracy has and always will be  hazardous to freedom, democratic ideals, and to the American way of life (PAGE 133).  
Although they both have good points on the communist movement there are still some weakness in their arguments. Sidney Hook believes that the communist movement is a danger to the American society when in reality the government would never allow such a thing.  J. Edgar Hoover’s weaknesses come from his own thoughts that the communist movement would create a new world revolution. Now even though they disagree on numerous things there are also some similarities within each of their arguments. J. Edgar Hoover and Sidney Hook were both anticommunist with different point of views on the communist party. Each author showed the good and bad risks that came with communism and how it effected society. Both authors relate the communist movement as conspiracy, as they both felt that this “conspiracy” had enough power to take over the U.S government. Hoover feels that the communist do not promote “force and violence” to the public but when their class persists to protect one another is when they are incriminated of using “force and violence” (page 128).   Hoover also states the only chance communists have of defeating the the current leading class is by world revolution using violent acts.(page 127).   Seeing how each of these authors view communism shows that they both think alike in the lines that the communist movement creates too much influence on a society. By using continuous pressure and power both authors think that this conspiracy is able to infiltrate different organizations. Hoover uses methods of Marxism whereas Hook uses methods of Leninism to bring in members of the communist party that will fulfill the communist duties.
While Hook was standing up for the the communist movement, Hoover felt that they should be interrogated and put on trial. Hook was able to see that through this movement they were utilizing their human rights  without breaking any laws. In other words, Hoover did not want to witness any part of the communist movement. Consequently, this left Hoover seeing Hook as person who defends the communist movement. Hook felt that advocating heresies of any kind, including communism, is  a necessary aspect of a liberal society (PAGE 264) Since Hoover relied on anti communism he didn’t give the time of day to any its plans, proposals, or associates, affiliated with the communist movement. He was not subject to any change or infiltration of the U.S government, where as Hook was. 
Through similarities and differences you are able to see how both J. Edgar Hoover and Sidney Hook portray communism. Hoover feels that the communist movement is a conspiracy that poses a threat to society and the American way of life, while Hook sees the movement as a heresy. To Hook, communism is just another tactic of survival. As for Hoover it stands for corruption of our democracy, freedoms, and rights. Although they both have different views on the communist movement, they both see the communist party as it is an endangerment to a liberal society.

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