New laws, ideas and
prohibitions on particular territory always come together with declaring new
power of governance due to cultural, religious and demographic difference.
Mostly, reaction on such changes depends on rate of government’s domestication
of region. Sometimes this difference is not quite seen, however in other cases
people, being experienced better conditions would find difficult to obey newly
established rules. One of the most obvious examples of such rebellion against
general rule is originating of nation state in Serbia.
According to The Serbs:
Chronicles of Serbian History(2017) the rule of Ottoman empire until 19th
century was harsh and oppressive in comparison with previous governance
Nemanjic Kings. Due to the fact that the main religion within empire was Sunni
Islam, Serbians as all orthodox Christians were forced to pay heavy taxes.
Beside of that Serbian people were faced with several social economic issues. Ottoman
empire break all of secular institutions, which were essential for Serbians
throughout ages. Turkish troops “coupled
with civil strife in the areas under their control” and repeated wars between
Ottomans and Habsburgs contributed to migration of majority of Serbian population in other
places, away from their area of inhabitance. (Göransson,2013). Janissaries frequently attacked civilians.
Moreover, rise of “illegal, big, private arable farmers” owned by them lead to
downgrading the status of Serbian peasants and loss of used understandings of
ideologies of liberty and freedom coming through ages (Hanio?lu (2008). In general, after Ottoman empire achieved
dominance in this territory, Serbians had been related to the lowest class of
society and were engaged in army or the most complicated work.
If from one hand New
enlightenment ideas, aspiration for equality and self -rule used during French
revolution and memories from bright past of golden age under the rule of
Nemanjic Kings reinforced Serbian people to show a rebellion.( Hanio?lu (2008),
from other hand orthodox church also made its contribution to rise of feeling
of nationalism. Despite of the strict regulations on Orthodox Church, it
stilled remained as the most “influential institution” for Serbians.
(Göransson,2013). Church representatives
published different religious literatures, folklore and folk songs, epic
narrative poetry about Dušan, Skanderbeg, and others, which facilitated keeping
memory about folk heroes and liberators of Nemanjic Serbia and amplifying
Serbian national culture and identity. (Danforth (2017)). In addition, Serbian
people were encouraged by Russia to upraise their “national and ethnic
identity”.(Serbian revolution(2008) Correspondingly, all of this facilitated
gaining a victory and declaration of autonomy of Serbian troops over Ottoman
empire within 1815-1816.( Serbian revolution. (2008).)
To draw a conclusion,
its obviously that change in governance in negative side, threat of extinction of
nation combined with motivational ideas
and uplifting lead to victory on rise of one of the first nation state
in Balkan region. Unfavorable rule of feudal Ottoman empire strengthened
relationships between people in Serbian society and therefore lead to the rise
of nationalism feeling.