Modern even in toys and casing of mobile. In

Modern Approaches In Manufacturing of Plastic Products

 

 

Abdul Subhan

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M.Faris Khan

Department of Mechatronics Engineering

Department of Mechatronics Engineering

Szabist University

Szabist University

Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan

Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan

[email protected]

[email protected]

 

                Abstract – In this paper we will be
discussing about the production of plastics through Injection Molding Process
and other modern techniques  in
industries. Injection molding has been challenging process to produce product
meeting requirement.  To determine the
parameters for the manufacturing of plastics through injection  molding using experimental approach is no
longer good enough. Due to insufficient performance of machine the quality of
the production may deviate during production. Determining optimal operation
parameter would influence quality, cost production in plastic
manufacturing.  Previously the plastic
manufacturing was much slower, now plastic is manufactured through machining
process. Now CNC and  EDM machining is
used which process the molds through optimal parameters. Part design, mold
design, machine performance and processing condition are the categories that
effect the quality of the molded part. Mechanical properties, dimensions or
measurable characteristics, and attributes are quality characteristics in
injection molding machine. Other than this the cavities and mold design are
designed  through CAM.  This research emphasizes in designing  the process parameter to produce plastics
through injection molding. 

                                                                                                                                                           

 

 

                KeyWords – Machining, Injection,
Molding, Parameters.

 

 

I.  Introduction

                Plastic
are basically organic polymers of high molecular mass, are usually synthetic ,
many are made from renewable materials. In many countries ,
plastic is being intensely  used by the
customers. In casing of an automobile plastic is used even in toys and casing
of mobile. In modern world the rapid growth in industries put the
demanding  requirements  in the innovative process of production of
plastics. To consume time the process to mold and cavities for plastic
production has been revolutionized, modern techniques has been implemented for
more production due to intense demand of the plastic all over the world. One of
the such technologies is the Rapid Prototyping method, which enables both,
designer and customer to see physical presentation . Manufacturing a plastic
comprises of stages from CAD design to simulation  to injection molding process through
injection molding machine. Injection molding machine is a machine for
manufacturing plastic products by injection molding process consisting of injection
unit and clamping unit.

 

II. Experimental Procedure

A.  Designing

Designing a mold , cavity or a punch for the plastic product is
the essential part for the plastic manufacturers to let it through to injection
molding machine process.  In industries
there are intense demand for the reduction of manufacturing time .To achieve
optimal outcomes with limited time different strategies are carried out
throughout the process. Through CAD the mold are designed which optimizes the
operation parameter for perfect dimensioning. Figure 1 show the 3D model
designed in CAD. 63% of survey
respondents indicated they use CAD.

  Figure 1

 

 

 

 

B. Machining
(Numerical control)

Computer numerical control (CNC)
is the automation of machine tools by means of computers executing
pre-programmed of machine control commands. In modern manufacturing the design
of mold or mechanical part is highly automated manufacturers emphasize a lot
upon CNC to reduce the consumption of time. 
CNC machining are integrated for the production parts. Many large scale companies considered usage of CNC
much effective and higher percentage uses it for manufacturing complicated
products. 93 percent engineering firms uses CNC machining. Twenty-six percent of the firms that used CNC
machining were using many of CNC machinery, and in many cases, multiple
machines of each type. CNC machining uses
variable axis to set perfect precision for the mold which is designed through
CAD/CAM. CNC reads out the coordinates through the software which takes much
less time indeed less labor consumed for it. Through this effective performance
of these autonomous process the production rate is much faster with respect to
time. Even small factories uses three axis machineries which somehow is
outdated despite of that they prefer it because other method used to
manufacture molds or cavities for plastic production is not precise and
consumes much time. The reason behind the usage of CNC is due to huge demand of
plastics all over world.  

C.
Computer Aided Manufacturing of the mold

In
the plastic manufacturing industry there are even higher demands for the
reduction of manufacturing time. In order to achieve the most favorable
manufacturing as regards reduction of manufacturing time and surface quality,
some different milling strategies were carried out. More complex products or
objects can be now produced using CAD/CAM software, it has also reduced labor
cost design phase.  These software can
animated any design which we made for operation and can also determine the time
required to manufacture, this made the production much effective.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

III.  Literature
review

77% of responding business organization used digitized the technologies
in their operations. These organization uses, digitized technologies with CAD,
CNC. Engineering business organization having 50 or more employees acquires  about, digitized technologies in their
manufacturing operations. Between 2001 to 2006 those engineering firms that
experienced income growth had acquired digitization technologies for the
manufacturing complicated products, whereas organizations that had not acquired
digitization technologies experienced less income growth throughout a period as
compared to those who adopted digitization technologies. In modern world hefty
amount of engineering organization are using CNC technology in wood work  ,metal work and most importantly plastic
manufacturing. 63 percent were using one or more CNC routers. Organization that
implemented CNC technology in their manufacturing found effective, below are
the statements that organizations experienced an effectiveness from CNC , (1)
Acquiring  CNC machining  boosted up 
machining parameters and accuracy, (2) enhanced  to manufacture complex objects with less
time, a (3) upgraded our manufacturing flexibility. Somehow some outdated CNC
machineries are being used by mane organization but despite of that their
production rates are must higher as they were using old job machineries before.
CAD was used by 65 percent of engineering business organization. CAD was used
almost as customarily in introductory concept development. Mutual statements
concerning about CAD by different organizations: (1) Using CAD software has
shortened time required for design, (2) Using CAD software the designers can
design much complicated objects, and (3) Labor cost has been reduced using CAD
software. Usage of digitization technologies by value-added plastic products
manufacturers in many companies was recognized by to be an important component
for competitive success. About three quarters of these companies used one or
more types of digitized technologies with CAD, CNC. Benefit of digital technologies
like CNC and EDM (Electronic Discharge Machine) made feasible for manufactured
to manufacture hefty amount of complex objects. Large scale and mid-scale
organization were more likely to have acquired digitized technologies than
small scale organizations but now even small scale organization uses CNC and
EDM but however they are outdated. Digital technologies, while more broadly
adopted by large scale firms, can be found in plastic manufacturing, and
architectural millwork manufacturing facilities of all sizes. Injection molding
machine used for fast production by many organizations even small scale
organization. These digitized technologies provide a wide range of benefits to
the organization.

IV. discussion

All key points like Rapid Prototyping, CAD/CAM tools and mold
development are presented. This kind of knowledge enables the possibility to
develop a completely new product in a period of 6 months, from the idea to the
start of the production. This paper does not deal with the preparation of
production in the plant.  CAE tools
enables, except the design of molds and optimization process conditions,
respectively, determination some injection molding process limits like minimal
thickness of thinnest area of the product to achieve required quality of molded
part. In simulation of injection molding process, it is possible to assess some
critical parameters some variables If these processes are conducted
simultaneously, the decrease of the development time of the mold down to less
than 3 months is possible.

 

 

 

 

 V.  Conclusion

A.      Plastic demanding   product.

B.      Machining , a must faster
way for the production of plastic

C.      CAD/CAM for designing and
giving dimension or coordinate to a particular design for high precision.

D.      CNC machining takes
coordinate which are set by software and makes a desired shape of the mold.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VI. References

 

1http://www.dpm.ftn.uns.ac.rs/jtp/Download/2009/Article9.pdf

2 https://www.ijser.org/researchpaper/Recent-Methods-for-

3https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303370721
4https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/25c3/cc7cbdc5230fb3f6fa2ccf2dba8265ad1df5.pdf

5  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numerical_control

 6 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Injection_molding_machine