Milk healthier saturated/unsaturated fat balance in cheese(Yu and Hammond

Milk
fat is a major component in full-fat dairy products, such as cheese. Milk fat
is considered as hypercholesterolemic due to its high levels of cholesterol and
saturated fatty acids which have negative health effects (Ney 1991; Yu and
Hammond 2000a). A diet rich in saturated fats and cholesterol is associated
with cardiovascular diseases(Karvonen
et al., 2002; Lobato-Calleros et
al., 2003). Some dairy products,
such as cheese, have high fat contents. Nutrition advice recommending a
reduction in cholesterol and saturated fatty acids in consumers’ diets, and
consumers’ demand for safe, and healthy foods, have led to the development of a
number of low- fat and fat-free cheeses. However, such products have problems
with flavour and texture (Entressangles
2000; Kondyli et al., 2003; Mistry
2001).

Vegetable
oils, such as olive oil and canola oil, are a good source of unsaturated fatty
acids and are also a source of energy and essential fatty acids which cannot be
synthesized by the body. Vegetable oils are well recognized for their health
benefits such as their effects on decreasing the incidence of cardiovascular
disease and prevention of some cancers (Fathi
Achachlouei et al., 2013; Bermúdez-Aguirre and
Barbosa-Cánovas 2011; Martini et al., 2009). The substitution of milk
fat by vegetable oils can contribute to a healthier saturated/unsaturated fat
balance in cheese(Yu and
Hammond 2000a). Attempts have been made
to replace the dairy fat with vegetable oils and such a substitution could be
advantageous because vegetable oils are cholesterol-free, usually cheaper and
less subject to seasonal variations than milk fat(Strugnell
1993; Yu and Hammond 2000a). A diet abundant in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids
provides positive health effects, for example, by the prevention of coronary
heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis(Karvonen
et al., 2002; Lobato-Calleros et
al., 2003; Mensink and Katan 1992; Simopoulos
1999; Ye et al., 2009).

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The
increased interest of consumers in more healthy foods such as low fat cheese and
cheese made using fat replacers has led to the development of new products
containing unsaturated fatty acids to satisfy consumer demand(Bermúdez-Aguirre
and Barbosa-Cánovas 2011; Drake and Swanson 1995; Entressangles
2000).  Fortification of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese
with ?-3 fatty acids has been performed using docosahexaenoic (DHA) and
eicosapentaenoic (EPA) fatty acids and results obtained indicated that 50%
reduced-fat Cheddar cheese aged for 3 months can be used as a vehicle for
delivery of ?-3 fatty acids without production of off-flavours (Martini
et al., 2009). A Swiss cheese-like
product was made from modified vegetable oils recombined with skim milk with
various fat sources and results obtained showed that production of a
good-flavoured Swiss cheese-like product from high oleic sunflower oil seems to
be commercially feasible (Yu and
Hammond 2000a). White fresh cheese has
been also made with canola oil and whey protein concentrate with partial or
total replacement of milk fat; when whey protein concentrate was added; a
denser, compact and continuous protein matrix was produced. In contrast, when
emulsified canola oil was added, a looser, more disrupted protein matrix was
formed(Lobato-Calleros
et al., 2007). Results obtained
indicated how different ingredients interact and modify cheese structure,
allowing the cheese processor to achieve a better control over various factors
that make possible the creation of new cheese products(Lobato-Calleros
et al., 2007).

Dairy
products, especially cheese, could also be good candidates for essential and
unsaturated fatty acids substitution because of their high frequency of
consumption and storage under cold conditions(Bermúdez-Aguirre
; Barbosa-Cánovas 2011). White brined cheese is a major dairy product in the Iranian
diet; the product resembles Beyaz peynir (Turkish brined cheese) and Feta
cheese, but differs from Feta in the way it is manufactured(Sabbagh
et al., 2010). Therefore, dairy
products such as white brined cheese made from skim milk combined with
vegetable oils could be attractive, but no research has been conducted into the
manufacture of a white brined cheese which has these dietary and functional
effects. Thus, the objective of the present study was to manufacture a dietary
and functional cheese by modifying of Iranian white brined cheese by fat
substitution with olive or canola oils at different levels (50% and 100% w/w)
to introduce a product to the market that can somewhat alleviate the problems
caused by high-fat dairy products.