LITERATURE and managers for their betterment. Performance management is

LITERATURE REVIEW

PERFORMANCE
MANAGEMENT

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In
this competitive world, it is important to measure the performance of employees
and managers for their betterment. Performance management is one of the
important concept in Human resource management because the organizational and
individual performance are put together according to the objectives for fulling
their goals and to provide the evaluation and to design reward system (Engel et
al. 2015, p.1955-1956).

The purpose
of performance management is strategic purpose which means that employees do
the activities according to the organizational goal, then administrative
purpose which means achieving recognition of organization, rewards, promotions,
retentions and so on. The last purpose is development purpose means bringing awareness
in themselves for new challenges and roles.

Negative
feedback is important in an organization for making improvements and this task
is very problematic for the managers. Through negatives feedback there is a
chance of getting adverse behaviour in employees such as anger, fear towards
the manager and the organization. Poor performance is a big problem in an
organization, it can be solved by practical implications such as best practice
and best fit practice (Brown et al. 2016, p.969-981).

High
performance organization in public sector brings changes in work sector. Changes
are always good for improvement of the productivity. Sometimes the changes may affect
in diverse condition. Workers face difficulty to adapt the immediate change. Most
of the time changes gets unsuccessful in organizations. So, it is important to
follow some principles for making the employees understand the need and
importance of the change. Principle one is clarity and purpose, second one is alignment
and integration, third one is mutuality and motivation, fourth one is
adaptability and progress (Buick et al. 2015, p.271-287).

Global
performance management is the concept in which organisational goals are changed
into individual goals. The vertical framework consists of four levels that are
Individual level, Local-Regional level, Strategic business unit level and
Global cooperate level. This means that performance management need to be rated
in individual level for making certain improvements. There is four specific process
to transform the global performance management in individual level. Firstly, funnelling
it is a selection criteria by interviewing the individuals in a panel
consisting of some practitioners, consultants, multinational enterprises and so
on. Through this initial step will make the company to select the appropriate
employee and with talent tournaments will make the company to measure the
existing employees and will help them to gain promotions to top levels according
to their performance. Secondly, summation it is a set of balanced scorecards which
is unique for helping the company to perform in good manner. It also helps to
identify the reward feedback and justification, assessing the employee
satisfaction and commitment, career planning and so on. The scorecards provide
information related to job performance and about the goals and targets which
they need to achieve for their company’s growth. Thirdly, conversion it is a
approach to find out the performance information relating to the competency managements,
rewards, recognition, workforce performance, employee engagement, employee
adaptability, ability to change and so on. Finally, the fourth one is
sharpening, it is the approach to sharpen the goals and strategies of the
organisation (Engel et al. 2015, p.1957-1960).

EMPLOYEE
ENGAGEMENT

Better
engagement leads to better productivity of the company. Employee engagement plays
a vital role in crises situations. To build up employee engagement it is
necessary to have openness by the employer to hear the employee needs which can
develop a trust and confidence to the company. According to the imperial
evidence states that engagement is the employee’s decision to invest their physical,
cognitive and emotions attitude towards their roles in a work which can lead to
develop the performance outcome individually. To improve the performance at
firm level, organisation level engagement is the one way to bring productivity.
It is also called business case (Barrick et al. 2015, p. 111).

Organizational
level engagement is varying from individual engagement. In resource management model,
it states that leader of the company must play vital and critical role for
generating capabilities among the employee’s. the leaders need to be knowledge and
have good behaviour towards the firm strategy. There is two comprehensive
theory that are collective organizational engagement and integrating engagement
theory. The collective organizational engagement is motivating work design which
means that employees used to share the perception that members of the
organization put their full potential into their work roles provided by the
company. The background for collective organizational engagement leads to
influence meaningful work design and human resource practices for collecting
feedbacks. The integrating engagement theory consist of work job engagement,
task engagement, organizational engagement and team/group engagement. These are
effected by different psychological conditions such as meaningfulness at work,
in work, safety and availability of resources (Barrick et al. 2015, p.112-123).

Engagement
is a mechanism that describes the relationship between the employer and
employee. The job resources and turnover is examined with two phases model such
as broaden-and-build model and job demand-resources model. In broaden-and-build
model states that the model examines the employees how they are engaged in work
which leads to the progress of the organization. This model found that people
who are truly engaged in the work is less likely to be absent from the work
(Soane et al. 2013, p.443-445).

In employee
engagement, it consists of several traits which the employees and employer
expect such as trust towards the organization, willingness to work in the
organization, understanding business goals and targets, being respectful and
helpful each other, willingness to go extra miles to work, keeping updated. According
to the Macey and Schneider,2008, states that employee engagement is a managerial
approach for instance putting old wine in new bottles.

Professional
service firm (PSF) is knowledge intensive organisation which consists of skilled
and autonomous professions who interact with internal and external parties. It is
not only the employees to deliver the products and service to the organization
but also to be a competitor to perform with their knowledge based outcome. This
means competing the commitment towards the employer, client, team and
profession. Work engagement is positive, fulfilling, work-related state of
mind. Work engagement comprise three dimension models such as vigour,
dedication and absorption. Vigour is high level of energy to do the job, dedication
is strong involvement in work, absorption is pleasant state of mind involved in
work (Yalabik et al. 2015, p.1602-1610).

Work
engagement involves psychological connections in relation to physical, emotional
and cognitive resources. Work engagement is examined the longitudinal relationship
between the engagement of work and some supportive job resources such as supervisor
support, colleague support and work culture support. The supervisor support and
colleague support are the proximal job resources which means that to identify
the degree of the work completion which is assigned by the colleague. The work
culture support is the support for employees to bring positive change in work
culture (Biggs et al. 2014, p.236-240).  

CULTURAL
DIFFERENCEculture is understood as the custom, beliefs, norms and values that guide the behavior of the people in a society and that are passed on from one generation to next.