Lastly, is an act of violence against civilians. Finally,

            Lastly, we
have Criminal behavior and it’s the wills, thoughts, intentions, and reactions
of a criminal. The interpretation of behavior that have a role are
psychological, sociological, and biological. These factors play a role in
expression of behavior. Psychological affecting the mind, sociological
determining social needs, and biological relating to a human being. These
traits identify if the person is at risk for any of these behaviors. The reason
for one’s behavior has a lot to do with their past behavior.

            Now we have
property crimes which involves your property being destroyed or being defaced.
Burglary entering a building with the intent of theft or to commit a crime,
larceny theft is taking away someone’s possession with the intent to hurt that
person, motor vehicle theft is the attempt of stealing a car, lastly arson
which is the act of setting fire to property. Now the overview of these crimes
that make it all up are consensus which are crimes that harm most of the
people, conflict view the law to control the lower classes and the poor of
society, and the last view of crime interactionist crimes that are illegal
because they fall under social norms. 

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            Crimes
against individuals are often known as personal crimes which an “offender uses
or threatens to use force upon a victim” (Wikipedia. “Violent Crime”). Which is
a violent crime and results in physical and emotional harm for the victim. This
type of crime is always against a person. It includes crimes such as murder the
unlawful killing of one human to another, forcible rape when a man forces an
unwilling woman to have sex, robbery when someone takes or attempts to take
something of yours worth of value, aggravated assault the uses of a weapon to a
human, and terrorism is an act of violence against civilians.

            Finally,
the Concept of Crimes which are felonies, misdemeanors, and violations.
Felonies is the most serious crime, when you are sentenced to one year or
longer. Misdemeanors is a less serious crime and is only sentenced less than a
year. Violations is an infraction to something so little as a traffic violation
in the town or city and has no jail time. Felony crimes include robbery,
murder, and rape, as well as damaging property.

Federal Law Enforcement Agency’s oversees
federal crime and crimes that take place in multiple jurisdictions, and offers
support to state and local law enforcement when called upon. The Department of
Justice (DOJ) investigates and prevents crime within the borders of the United
States. Within the Department of Justice (DOJ) there’s Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) they investigate the legal trade and transportation
of such. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) which focuses on the illegal
transportation of drugs. Then we have Federal Marshals Service they oversee
tracking down fugitive’s people who have escaped from jails or prisons. Lastly,
we have Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) which they investigate and
prevent crimes within the United States.

            Moving on
to the line and staff system of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies are
chief of police, deputy, patrol officer, and a traffic officer. The primary
goal of a police department is to protect and serve. They prevent and
investigate crime to have a safer community. The line of employee that work to
make this happen would be patrolling officers, detectives, and high-ranking
police administrators. There are four general responsibilities of a police
officer, which are enforcing the law, preventing crime, responding to
emergency’s, and proving support service. Police officers are now trying to be a
part of the community as opposed to enforcing the law. Police officers monitor
criminal activity, take part in community patrols, respond to emergency calls,
issue tickets, make arrests, investigate crimes and testify in court as needed.

            Juvenile
detention center are secured housing facilities for juvenile offenders. The
main goal of these detention centers is to keep juveniles who have committed
crimes away from the public. Some programs that they offer at a juvenile
detention center is the ability to continue their education, physical
activities, exercise programs, access to library resources, visitation from
family, and medical and mental health services. Counseling is an important part
towards the juvenile’s rehabilitation. They now try to make these detention
centers more rehabilitative rather than discipline and the ways that they do
that is by promoting academics, having an addiction treatment program, and
having counseling services. They do this, so they could go back into society as
productive citizens.

            Federal
prisons are used for long term confinement and is run by the federal
government. They hold inmates who have been convicted of federal crimes and are
serving their sentence. Federal prisons vary by security level the government
uses a number scale of 1-6 six being the highest security level. The labels to
these are minimum, medium, and maximum. Another function of prison is taking
care of the death penalty which includes lethal injection, electrocution,
lethal gas, firing squad and hanging. As well as having rehabilitation programs
to get them back on track. Education and Work Program, it shows the inmates
what kind of skills they would need for a job and some educations skills.
Another program is the Life-Skill Training is for when an inmate is going to be
released but doesn’t have much prior to the understanding of the outside world,
this program includes “how to apply and interview for a job, how to manage
one’s money and household, how to live a healthy life, how to parent and be a
spouse, and how to secure a driver’s license” (Rehabilitation. “Correctional
Programs in the United States”). This program just prepares an inmate for some
daily challenges that we face every day since in federal prison they didn’t
have those kinds of responsibilities, so there preparing them for what is seen
to be required in American society.

            Prisons are
correctional facilities used for long term confinement and is run by the state.
 Prison holds inmates who have been
convicted of their crimes and will now be serving their sentence which is
longer than one year or life in prison. “The Prison Industry Enhancement
Certification Program (PIECP) has employed 4,666 inmates.”
(Schmalleger, Frank “Criminal Justice Today an Introductory text for the 21st
Century” Pearson, 2016) the program was made so that anyone that had a big
agency could employ an inmate once they got out. “Prisons built their programs
around both individual treatment and group therapy approaches” (Schmalleger,
Frank “Criminal Justice Today an Introductory text for the 21st
Century” Pearson, 2016) meaning for individual therapy it was just face to face
with the therapist and for group therapy it was many inmates sharing their
thoughts.

            In the
United States there is a total of 731,200 inmates in local jails. Jails are incarceration
facility’s generally run by a local government and used as a temporary holding
facility. The jails are run by county sheriff’s departments. The reason why
people go to jail is because they’ve been recently arrested and have not been
charged, recently arrested and charged with a crime but has not been released
on bail, or has been convicted of a crime and given a sentence of a less than a
year. They hold offenders who have violated probation or have been revoked, new
prisoners that don’t fit in prison due to overcrowding, mentally ill offenders
waiting to be transferred to a mental health facility, juveniles while they
transfer to appropriate juvenile correctional facility, and they hold
intoxicated people overnight to be charged with public intoxication.

            U.S.
Supreme Court is the highest court in the state and has the authority to
decided appeals on all cases brought in as well deals with matters of state, or
national importance. It’s the court of the last resort. They will take a court
cases from appellate court if there were any issues with interpretation of the
law or with a constitutional right. There is no reviewed case if both parties
aren’t satisfied with the decision. There are 9 judges that decided on these cases.
For your case to be heard in a Supreme Court one must file a Writ of Certiorari
which the lower court has to fully inform them of your case for your case to be
heard.

            U.S.
Circuit Court of Appeals is where one or both parties are dissatisfied with the
judgement in the U.S. District Court. This court hears both civil and criminal
cases. There are 13 U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals and this court is to be
considered one of the most powerful. Only three judges hear a single case and
there is no jury. This court hears appeals from a lower court, so the judge’s
decisions often proceeds in time.

            Not just
the history of Criminal Justice has evolved also the courts, corrections, and
police. The U.S. District Court has jurisdiction over cases involving both
civil and criminal actions. Civil actions could be that one’s constitutional
rights were violated, a violation of law or treaty’s in the United States, or
if the United States is party to the suit. The other kinds of cases that you’ll
hear in a District Court is civil maritime cases, and cases involving citizens
of different states. Whether it is a civil or criminal case a judge determines
issues of law and a jury determines facts of a case, and determine if a person
is guilty or not with only having the evidence introduced in the court room. There
are 94 U.S. District Courts with at least one in every state which in each
state contain 2-28 judges.  This court
has no power to hear an appeal from a lower court it has no appellate jurisdiction
which is the power of a higher court to review decisions and change outcomes of
decisions of a lower court.

            Whether any
of the punishing that they had before was effective or not those events are
what now helped create the criminal justice system of the United States.
Because of the small religious towns and the large diverse cities where religion
and cultural customs was huge and with that it made there be a need for police,
courts, and corrections.

            As the
society expanded in population and location the use of religion to control
society became less frequent. This change led to more laws and more violations.
Many believe that these laws weren’t effective they believed that God’s law was
more effective at shaping behavior rather than the police, courts, and laws.

During the 17th century in the Colonial period
early Americans didn’t have any suited rules, or laws to protect themselves
from criminal behavior. During those years Americans developed their own
mechanisms to then enforce the rules of society as well as punishing offenders.
Today those are taken over by the police, courts, and corrections. Before any
former laws were established in the United States, Americans relied on religion
and sins to improve people’s life. That’s why many of their Colonial crime
codes were from the bible such as blasphemy, profanity, and sacrileges of the
sabbath which were highly punished. There were punishments such as dunking
which they tied you onto a chair your arms as well and would dunk you into a
lake, stoning which was intense weight upon a person with the intent to kill,
and whipping which they would tie up the offender or lean them against a post
and would whip them. All these methods were meant to humiliate the offender and
to put remorse on the offender and so everyone else knew not to commit these
crimes.