Infant different concentration in infant formulae, including cholesterol, long

Infant
formulae are made to replace human milk. Infant formulae are made to provide
the same nutritional value that the human breast milk have. However, there are
components like maternally-derived antibodies that cannot be reproduced.in such
infant formulae does not provide some components that are found in human milk.
Studies have shown that children who are provided with human milk have some
certain measurable advantages over infant formulae ones as some non-essential
fatty acids, specifically docosahexaenoic acid(DHA)and arachidonic
acid(AA).Human milk also have some unidentified components that are essential
for other growth factors of a infants.( Jennie Yum)

 

Human
milk is considered to be the best standard of infant nutrition. Human milk
contain unique combination of carbohydrates, fat, protein, vitamins and
minerals. Infant formulae have been designed in a way to mimic this unique combination
but there are numerous components that can not be manufactured synthetically. This
these components include maternally-derived antibodies which protect against illness
and infection. That is why mothers are encouraged to breast feed infants as
studies also show that for the last two decades human milk fed infants may have
an advantage to their formula fed counterparts with respect to cognitive
development and I.Q. But these studies were poorly designed as they are not
randomized. Difference in Cognitive development and I.Q may have been because
of absent or present in lower and different concentration in infant formulae,
including  cholesterol, long chain
polyunsaturated  fatty acids (LCPUFAs),
as well as various growth factors, hormones, vitamins and minerals. ( Jennie Yum)

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Infant
formula milk is formulated to mimic human breast milk’s nutritional composition
so as to be an effective substitute. However there are many biological
components that cannot be artificially produced e.g. maternally-derived antibodies.
( Jennie
Yum)

 

 

Types
of Formulae Milk

 

Cow-based
formulae

Most
infant formula are cow milk-based formulae milk. They only vary in regards to
calorie, protein and mineral content .Though they vary they are regulated by
Health Canada and in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA). These formulae milk are designed to fit the needs of the infant classified
as Term formulae which is designed for term infants and Preterm formulae which
is designed for preterm infants.(Yum 2007)

1.     
Term
formulae milk which is based on the way mature breast milk is in terms of
composition. These term formulae provide an average of 68kcal/100 0ml energy and
1.5 g/100ml protein. As cow’s milk contains lower quantities of amino acids it
is often supplemented with cysteine and taurine. Taurine is involved with the
development of the cardiovascular and nervous system where it plays a role in
modulating neurotransmission. While cysteine significantly improves the infant’s ability
to build body proteins (Michalk
1988)

2.     
Preterm
formulae milk are enriched in calories to provide an average of 80kcal/100ml in
support of intrauterine nutrients accretion rates. These type of formulae are
supplemented with a great level of protein and mineral to argument in the
growth rate. The balance of protein and fat in these type formulae is critical
in promoting accretion rate of fat, fat-free mass, and minerals closer to that
of a fetus. (Fairey 1997)

 

Soy-based
Formulae

Initially soy-based
formulae milk was designed for infants who were lactose intolerant or infants
that showed signs of allergic reactions toward cow milk. Nowadays over a quarter
of infant formulae sales are of soy-based formulae. Compared to when it was
first made this formula has been improved to ensure protein quality and
adequate availability of minerals. Soy protein isolates has replaced soy flour
in making this type of formulae. . However some infants have shown some
reaction towards soy-based. And there is still concern over the high phytoestrogenic
isoflavone content and the possibility of exogenous endocrine effect. (Mendez 2002)