” Aggressive behavior is the response that give noxious
stimulus to other”.
AND AGRASSIVE BEHAVIOR Hormones
play an important role in the behavior of animals.
Even change in concentrations of hormones bring change in
mood and behavior. Variations in the levels of hormones production impact on
the psychological problems like hyper-tension and depression. Example of this
is that about 50-75% of patients suffering from hypertension is caused by hyper
activation of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal gland that secrete and produce
more cortisol hormone than need. Due to which patient is mentally suffer from
depression. And according to a survey in 2017 more than 75% people effected
from depression in the world. Aggressive behavior is also a big problem for
society. During 1998-1999 in England and Wales the number of violent offences
are 6.3%, and majority of them was violence against the person.
And according to a
survey in 2017 more than 75% people effected from depression in the world.
Aggressive behavior is also a big problem for society. During 1998-1999 in
England and Wales the number of violent offences are 6.3%, and majority of them
was violence against the person.
BEHAVIOR WITH RESPECT
There are different types of aggression caused by
testosterone i.e. predatory, intermale, fear induced, territorial, maternal and
instrumental. Some important of which are discussed here. Testosterone present
both in male and female but in different concentrations that effect
There are two major stages of life at which testosterone
important main role in the behavior of animal. These stages include after birth
and on the onset of puberty.
An experiment on removal and replacement of testosterone
explain the relationship between the hormones and aggression in animal’s
behavior. In the experiment, it is seen that castration shows less aggression
but replacement or ingestion of testosterone restore the aggression.
Aggression and other behaviors caused by testosterone
show their effect differently in male and females. Females take longer time to
express aggression and other characters shown by testosterone. Different
regions of brains control the regulation of hormones and consequently
ROLE OF TESTOSTERON IN
In 1849 Berthold made an experiment and explain the
change in aggression in male rat. He told that a rat shows decrease in
aggression after castration and aggression were reserved after replacement of
testes. In a recent research on testosterone it is stated that in intermale
aggression behavior of rat is induced by the hypothalamus of brain that is
enhanced by secretion of androgen.
This research also
explain that in rats, mice, monkey and human competitive and intermale
aggression is exponentially increased at puberty. We can reduce these types of
aggression by castration and restore the aggressions by injection of
ROLE OF TESTOSTERONE IN
In females, aggression is shown by testosterone like dose
dependent manners. In one experiment, we take an ovariectomized female rate as
an experimental organism. Then testosterone, estradiol and placebo injected to
the rat on daily basis. And observe her aggressive behavior with respect to
each dose. Aggressive behavior measured by the frequency of fight. And we
conclude from all of these experiments that aggression is because of
testosterone. Aggression is little bit effected by placebo and estradiol.
Generally, in female
aggression pattern is almost similar to that of male. As ovariectomy without
hormone replacement shows decrease in interfemale aggression. And if we inject
the testosterone to that female it restore her aggressive behavior again. It
shows that testosterone stimulates the interfemale aggression. But it is not
true that aggression is caused by or effected by only testosterone. It is a
complex process that include many other factors that stimulate the hormones and
participate in aggressive behavior. So it may be possible that without the presence
of testosterone aggression is not occurs due to the miss coordination of other