Chapter light of programming dialect named precessing, which likewise

Chapter
02

 

Hardware
Components

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Circuit Components

 

Ø  Bridge
Rectifier

Ø  Capacitor

Ø  220-6V
Step Down Transformer

Ø  Zener
Diode

Ø  Ardiuno
UNO

Ø  Resistors

Ø  20*4
LCD Display

Ø  Regulator

Ø  Relay

Ø  Voltage
Sensor

Ø  Current
Sensor

Ø  Diode

Ø  Potentiometer

Ø  BJT
547

Ø  GSM
Sim 808

Ø  Opto
Coupler

Ø  AC
to DC converter

Arduino:

Arduino
is an open-source device that made microcontroller based packs for building
digitalized gadgets and interactive objects that can be detect and control practical
devices. The output depends on microcontroller board plans. These systems give
sets of computerized and analog input/output pins that can interface to
different extension sheets and different circuits. The sheets highlight serial
correspondence interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus (USB) on a few models,
for leading programs from PC’s . For programming the microcontrollers, the
Ardunio extend gives an integrated development environment (IDE) in light of
programming dialect named precessing, which likewise underpins the dialects C
and C++.

An
Arduino board camprises of an Atmel 8, 16 or 32 bit AVR microcontroller with
corresponding parts that encourage programming and joining difference cities.
An important part of Arduino is its standard connectors, which let clients
associate the CPU board to an assortment of tradable of extra modules named
shields. The reason of using Arduino is to control the circuit. In our project,
Arduino plays a very important role. The reason behind this is, in our project
voltage measurement, perfect tripping time, give notification to the user on
time it is very necessary. To control these things in parallel way, Arduino is
important. In this project, we are willing to use Arduino UNO to fulfill our
necessity. The Arduino UNO is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega 328.
It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6
analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an
ICSP header and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the
microcontroller. We can easily connect it to computer with a USB cable or power
it with AC to DC adapter or battery to get started.

We
could have used microcontroller. This would fulfill our all demand. But there
are some drawbacks using microcontroller. The main superiority of using Arduino
is it has a vast amount of library which microcontroller don’t have. Besides as
we are thinking of making something that does not cost much. Arduino UNO is
cheaper than microcontroller so if we think economically Arduino UNO is good
for us. Microcontroller will make the device that we are trying to build quite
big on the other hand Arduino UNO is small. For these reason we choose to work
with Arduino UNO.

 

Bridge
Rectifier:

We
used this rectifier as the supply is of AC so we need to convert the AC to DC.
We can use full wave also but it has more losses than this rectifier as we
don’t use center tap in this rectifier as it firms continuous flow of direct
current. We will use four diodes in this rectifier and one capacitor parallel
to this acts as filtering of the AC curents from DC currents. It requires four
diodes instead of two, but avoids the need for a center tapped transformer.
During the positive half cycle of the secondary voltage, diodes D1 and D3 are
conducting and D2 and D4 are not conducting. Therefore, current flows through
the secondary winding, diode D1 and D3, resistor RL. During the negative half
cycle of the secondary winding, diode D1 and D3, resistor RL. The diodes D2
& D4 conduct and diodes D1 & D3 do not during the negative half cycle
of the secondary voltage. Eventually current through pass the secondary winding
, diode D2, D4 and Resistor RL. In both occasion current went through same
direction of the load resistor.

A
conventional bridge rectifier, is a combination of rectifiers (12 in a three
phase system) wired so that each part of an AC current is passed to respective
positive and negative lines of a DC output. It provides full wave rectification
of AC to DC.

In
a sense of making it low cost, highly reliable and small sized silicon bridge
rectifiers is now more convenient in the contrary of a center-tap and half wave
rectifier. It has a significant number of advantages over a center-tap and a
common half wave rectifier. Some advantages are given here. The precise
rectification efficiency of full-wave rectifier is two times of that of a half
wave rectifier. With the higher frequency and lower ripple voltage in this case
full wave rectifier is easy to filtering circuit. We have higher output
voltage, higher output power and higher Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) IN
case of a full-wave rectifier. Another perk in a full wave rectifier is, there
is no saturation problem due to DC current because of the core where DC current
in the two halves of the transformer secondary flow in opposite directions.
There is no necessary to use a complex center tap in the transformer secondary
winding so in case of a bridge rectifier the transformer required is much
simple. We can even omit transformer if step up or step down voltage is not
required. The PIV is the other half part of the center-tap rectifier. Hence
bridge rectifier is highly computable for higher voltage applications. TUF in
case of a bridge rectifier, is higher than that of a canter-tap rectifier. For
a given power output, power transformer of smaller size can be used in case of
the bridge rectifier because in both (primary and secondary) windings of the
supply transformer flow for the entire AC cycle. It will 0.4$ globally.

 

 

Capacitor:

We
all know that capacitors store and release electrical charge. They are used for
filtering power supply lines, alternate resonant circuits, and for blocking DC
voltages while passing AC signals, among many other uses 470 micro farads: 15
0.1 micro capacitor.

AC
capacitors will cost 0.5$ per piece.

 

Zener
Diode:

The
use of diodes in this project near the low voltage and high voltage near low
voltage we use 6.0V and near high voltage 6.8V. As this diodes are used as
break down voltage contractions: The Zener diode’s operation depends on the
heavy doping of its p-n junction. The depletion region formed in the diode is
very thin (