Chapter Division of La Union. In relation to the

Chapter 1

THE
PROBLEM

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Background of the Study

Teaching as a profession has been universally recognized and
accepted as a science and an art. A more serious look at its effect on the
population being taught, points for a greater emphasis on the methodologies and
various ways of imparting knowledge to the young,

(
Salandanan 2007).

Information Technologyas the science of managing and
processing information using  computers
has greatly advanced in the last decade in both developed and developing
countries. Educational Innovationswhich
refers to the as the process of making changes to something established by
introducing something new to educational process has greatly changed the
way people learn, communicate and do business. Previous empirical studies world
over have highlighted the roles of a computer as an instructional tool in the
classroom, particularly in enriching the teaching and learning of Mathematics
(Mubichakani, 2012; Wanjala, 2005). However, it is surprising that most schools
are yet to integrate its use in the teaching and learning of the subject.

Burgos National high school is a public secondary school
located at barangay New Poblacion, Burgos, La Union. It was created with thepassage
of Municipal Resolution no. 29 on December 1966. Despite of its

2

51
years existence, most teachers are still using the traditional way of

imparting
knowledge to its students. This situation motivated the researcher to develop a
study entitled  ” ICT in Mathematics
instruction among grade 10 learners and junior high school mathematics teachers
in the public secondary  school of
Burgos, Schools Division of La Union.

In relation to the field of study  as being emphasize, this study is delimited
to the following considerations: The extent of adequacy of  ICT instructional materials?  Types of 
ICT use  in Mathematics
Instruction, Capability of Teachers  to
use technology in Mathematics Instruction, Constraints encountered by teachers
in using technology in mathematics instruction and the possible solutions to
solve or minimize constraints encountered by teachers in using technology in
mathematics instruction in the public secondary schools of Burgos District,
Division of La Union.

Society is in constant change, and the secondary school
program must keep pace. For too many years, the secondary Mathematics program
was static. Our contemporary world demands a kind of mathematical knowledge
that is very different from that require in the past.

ICT capability
involves technical and cognitive proficiency to access, use, develop, create
and communicate information appropriately, using ICT tools.  Learners demonstrate this capability
byapplying technologypurposefully to solve problems, analyses and exchange

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information, develop ideas, create
models and control devices. They are discriminating in their use of information
and ICT tools, and systematic in reviewing and evaluating the contribution that
ICT can make to their work as it progresses. ICT capability is much broader
than acquiring a set of technical competencies in software applications,
although clearly these are important. ICT capability involves the appropriate
selection, use and evaluation of ICT. In essence, pupils need to know what ICT
is available, when to use it and why it is appropriate for the task.

Knowledge and basic skills compose a large part of learning
in mathematics. Technology is ubiquitous. It affects the lives of the students
and teachers in dozens of ways every day. As a digital natives, our
students  needs teachers who are willing
to step beyond the way they were taught into a classroom bustling with
possibilities for transmitting, developing, and assessing skills. Students
wants to explore and express their understanding of new content by connecting
it to real world tools that they know and love. And be mindful that some
digital natives know everything and more about, getting beyond goggle and
assessing the validity and suitability of individual websites.

According to Heddens, James W. ( 1988, sixth edition ),  the popularity of serious questions
concerning the teaching of mathematics. Obviously, technology has had a major
impact outside the classroom.

 

4

However, is the use of technology appropriate inside the
classroom? Preparing children to function successfully in the real world is a
primary goal of mathematics instruction. Since technology is part of the real
world, school system and teachers have an obligation to teach children how to
use the technology.

In the
twentieth century schools encounter a number of difficulties including
integration of information and communication technologies (hereafter ICT) into
the teaching and learning, education curriculum and change in methods in
pursuit of developing learner lifelong learning skills. Strategy of
Implementation of Information and Communication Technologies in the Lithuanian
Education (2001) emphasizes the main causes that lead to the necessity to
utilize ICT in education: changes in economy, social and education science
areas.

1. Economic changes are
related to the integration of information technologies in various areas of
national economy. Computerization of various economic spheres demand of ICT
skilled workers.

2. Social changes are
related to the abundance of information,

development of
communication network, which opens new opportunities to obtain and spread
information.

3. Pedagogical changes are
related to the opportunity to use information technologies better and acquire
knowledge of various subjects and higher order skills sooner.

5

Education
system faces with the biggest challenge brought by Information and
Communication Technologies. Education has to respond to economic and social
changes so it educates young generation equipped with newest knowledge and
skills (including ICT) ready to face challenges of the constantly changing world.

The growing placement of microcomputers in classroom is
supported by school administrators, teachers and parents. If we make
assumptions that technology is a viable tool of mathematics instruction, when
should computer be introduce into the instructional program?

It stands to reason that the computer is the best tool to
prepare teaching materials. Even illustrations that might take extra effort
using computer, as compared preparing them freehand on paper or on the
chalkboard can easily captured as a file on the computer because of the
increased flexibility afforded by this approached ( Poole, B. J., 1997 ).

According to Salandanan ( 2006 ), Technology aided
strategies are aimed at providing valuable experiences through instructional
devices that can be viewed and heard, updated information such as recent
discoveries and communicated are learned through pictures, films, tapes and
television.Integration which is
an Act of combining into an integral whole, for example in this context it is
the  application of technology into
teaching and learning to assist, enhance and extend student knowledge. Integration of information
technologies into the system of education was

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discussed
by a number of authors such as Hargreaves (1994), Lawton (1994), Lai (2001), Ringstaff
(1995), Murray and Campbell (2000), Billowes (1999), and others. It was
emphasized that the change in teaching and learning while integrating
information and communication technologies is a long process which requires a
lot of resources and depends on every individual teacher, thus creating a
number of barriers and difficulties.One of the most important trends in the
present education system is the change and restructuration in the
teaching/learning process integrating technological innovations.The main
restructuration elementof the change of the teaching practice.

New
teaching/learning methods incorporate problem-solving learning, cooperative
learning, orientation to real goals and the change in the teacher roles
(Masters, Yelland 2002).Computer software which is the collection of computer programs
and related data that provides the 
instructions telling what to do. It is difficult for teachers to
change according to the requirements(teachers should know and be able to
usemodels of ICT skill acquisition, teacher should be acquainted with virtual
environments, he/she should be able to integrate ICT in the curriculum, teacher
should know main functions of operation systems etc.) of the documents which
regulate ICT integration (Strategy of Information and Communication Technology
Implementation in the Lithuanian System of Education (2000), Teacher Computer
Literacy Standard (2001),

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Programme
of Information and Communication Technology Implementation in the Lithuanian
Educational System (2002) ) because they do not have enough ICT competency,
therefore, resistance to change conducted by ICT integration in the teaching
and learning process emerges and barriers to the integration of information and
communication technologies into the teaching/learning process appear.

Sinko (2002), discussing
the barriers to successful integration of ICT into the teaching/learning
process, distinguishes the following factors:

?  Lack of support for the
educational personnel and learners;

?  Lack of teacher
competencies to use certain software;

?  Insufficient financing
(of teacher professional developments in ICT field, of appropriate computer
hardware and software etc.);

?  Lack of cooperation among academic personnel
in the same and in another schools.Whereas
Lai (2001), distinguishing barriers to the ICT integration into the
teaching/learning process, describes them in a more detailed and structured
way:

?  Lack of competencies;

?  Limited accessibility

?  Lack of support

?  Lack of competencies

?  Shortage of time

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?  Change process:

The highest barrier to integration of information and
communication technologies into the teaching/learning process is the change as
such. CEO (1999) discerns five stages of integration and overcoming
difficulties:

1. Entry – learners are trained how
to use information and communication   
technologies;

2. Adoption – teachers use technologies
as supplementary aids in the context of traditional teaching/learning methods;

3. Adaptation – technologies are used
for expansion/enrichment of the curriculum;

4. Appropriation –  technologies are integrated and used due to their exceptional and
unique qualities; 5. Invention – new areas are invented where the
use of technologies appropriate.

Having overviewed the
barriers and difficulties of ICT integration presented by different authors,
such as Murray and Campbell (2000), Hargreaves (1994), Cook, (1997), Ang
(1998), Glennan and Melmad (1996), Ringstaff (1995), (Lai 2001), Sinko (2002)
and etc., and afersummarizing,  we will
present the main factors that have to be taken into account seeking to overcome
the barriers and difficulties:

 

 

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·        
Political decisions

Using information and
communication technologies in the process of teaching/learning, i.e., in class,
their integration into the present curriculum aiming at improvement of
teaching/learning is the most difficult process. This attempt to integrate
information and Ministry of communication technologies can be fruitless and
inefficient unless the Education and Science plans and provides schools with
proper resources (Lai 2001).

·        
School management

Schools can play a very
important role in integrating ICT into the system of education. It is worth
mentioning that not only ministries should tale how the process of integration
should be organized, but alsoschools could give feedback on difficulties they
are facing integrating ICT into curriculum and suggesting what could be done
differently.

·        
Teacher as learner

Teachers
have to experience learner position. In the learner position teacher models a positive
situation for learners and shows learners a different perspective, which makes
the perception of new subjects easier. Teacher has to feel free and without any
restrictions in the teaching environment. Only these feelings will foster the
teacher to learn and develop further.

 

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·        
Barriers as opportunities

The emerged difficulties should be viewed as opportunities to
develop. It should not decrease motivation but should be transformed into the
constructive process of teaching/learning, which could support ICT integration
in a more efficient way (Lai 2001).

·        
Peer support

Reliable
colleagues can become internal “technology” teachers who could teach
in small and convenient groups. Teachers can be provided help by sharing best
practices of the same school teachers or analyzing the benchmarking projects.

·        
Time issue

If the
school intends to achieve good results in the area of ICT integration, then at
least one week a year should be devoted to teacher activities outside the
class. During these events teachers should be acquainted with innovations in
information and communication technology area, and should be explained in
detail how to use these innovations and integrate them into the process of
teaching/learning.ICT advent to the school conducts the need of reorganization
of the teaching and learning and even of school management and structure it
begins process of change. Fullan (1993) asserts that change is a complex
phenomenon, whereas the teaching and learning change is even a more

 

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complex and complicated
process and presents several principles which, according to him, lead to the
successful change process.

In these principles Fullan
(1999) emphasizes that change is a complicated process, because it is necessary
to change power structures and because a great number of people participate in
this process, including teachers, principals, school managers, learners and
their families.

Change
cannot be required from the people who lead school or from the government;
however, support of the latter is particularly important Fullan (1999) also
notices that during the change the problems arise and conflicts emerge and that
it is necessary to learn from them, not to look at them as a negative
phenomenon. Change requires cooperation, however, this cooperation has to allow
for and foster the difference in opinions and approaches. According to him, the
whole process of change has to be flexible and its efficiency depends on the plan
of change, if it is designed and how specific it is.

There
are, certainly, a number of barriers, including teacher development and change
process, to successful integration of technologies into the teaching/learning
process. Until these barriers exist, the learners will not be able to take full
advantage of the opportunities provided by information and communication
technologies.

 

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States
military academy at West Point implemented three phase toaccomplish faculty
development most effectively. The three phases werelearning, practice and
feedback, and continued development. The firstphase encompassed training in
available technology, classroommodeling of the technology, learning how to
encourage studentparticipation, and initial feedback from experienced
instructors. Thesecond phase of the program involved setting aside time in the
newinstructors’ schedules for designing and practicing lessons; mentoringby
experienced faculty; videotaping practice sessions; encouragingreflection among
the new instructors; and providing feedback on theirefforts.

The
final phase included the formal summer developmentalworkshop and several
activities and programs regarding technologyintegration. These programs were
implemented to ensure continued development and integration of technology in
the classroom and teaching repertoire. Cradler and Cradler’s (1995) finding
supported this approach that although one-time workshops help instructors
incorporate and integratetechnology; it takes a long-term program for true

effectiveness.
Therefore, continued development, training, and mentorship are essential for an
effective teacher’s development program.

Conceptual
Framework of the Study

          The
term ICT as applied to education, are those technologies include computers, the
Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and

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television), and telephony that can
facilitate not only delivery of instruction, but also learning processes
itself.

Besides, ICT requires up-to-date
hardware and software. Using up-to-date hardware and software resources is a
key feature in the diffusion of technology (Gulbahar 2007) but a rare
experience in educational institutions. High-speed internet connection is
another prerequisite for integrating ICT into the teaching-learning situation.
But unfortunately internet access is very poor. The use of ICT in the mathematics classroom has
long been a topic for consideration by mathematics educators. Some examples of
ICT use in mathematics include: portables, graphic calculators and computerized
graphing, specialized software, programmable toys or floor robots, spreadsheets
and databases. Studies have shown that a range of portable devices exists which
allow pupils to collect data, and manipulate it using spreadsheets and
databases for work in numeracy. Some portable equipment also enables the study
of math to move out of the classroom and to incorporate fieldwork
investigations (Moseley and Higgins 1999).

Many researchers have
pointed out that a school’s ICT vision is essential to effective ICT
integration (Anderson & Dexter, 2000). Bennett (1996, p. 60) stressed the importance
of a “well-defined mission that describes technology’s place in education”. In
line with this idea, Ertmer (1999) wrote, “A vision gives us a place to start,
a goal to reach for, as

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well as a guidepost
along the way” (p. 54). Also, Means and Olson (1997) recommend that teachers
and schools must develop a vision before they make substantial investments in
hardware and software. In other words, users of technology must have a
fundamental belief in the value of innovation or the innovation is doomed to
failure. Teachers must have opportunities to study, observe, reflect, and
discuss their practice.

The rapid evolution of
information and communication technology (ICT) and Innovations of new values though solutions that meet new requirements
and inarticulate needs is changing the face of education and making information
universal. Realizing the effects of the ICT in the education system, the
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and Department of Education provided
most of the schools with computer units and peripherals. Some of the teachers
in these schools have undergone ICT trainings.

ICT has become an indispensable
tool in enhancing the students’ learning capabilities for them to connect between
the content of the teacher tips and technology applications which inspire them
to explore and expand their creativity with the use of technology. It should
also expand into the knowledge of the community, for their deeper
understanding, engagement and involvement in realizing the importance of
technology.ICT which refers to a
range of technological tools and

 

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resources used to communicate,
and to create, to disseminate, to store and manageinformation.  Technologies do not refer to only the
computers, but also broadly to Internet, broadcasting technologies (such as
radio and television), telephones (including mobile phones), CDs and DVDs.  However, this new technology could not
replace the teachers in the classroom. It is not a solution for all educational
problems either (Wang & Woo, 2007). ICT is certainly an effective tool that
enables us to link various learning communities together in new and different
ways (Tailor, 2000). It provides great possibilities for effective
communication between teachers and students in varying and innovative ways.

Teacher which referred
to
as person who instills knowledge, attitudes and skills  have been found to be major predictors of the
use of new technologies in instructional settings. The teachers’ beliefs about
teaching and learning with ICT are central to integration.Mwelese and Wanjala
(2014) indicate that to be successful in computer use and integration, the role
of the student, and their role as teachers in upgrading themselves towards
Technology based instructions for more efficient, effective and meaningful
mathematics instruction.
Hence the

successful use of ICT into classroom
largely depends on teachers’ attitudes and belief concerning the whole process.
In fact, it has been suggested that attitudes towards computers affect
teachers’ use of

 

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computers in the classroom and the
likelihood of them benefiting from training (Kluever, et al, 1994).

Some studies
wants  to find out on the adequacy of
ICT  instructional Material, the
capability of teachers in using ICT, constraints in the use of ICT in teaching
– learning processes and provide suggested solutions on the constraints
encountered in the use of ICT in mathematics instruction at the same time  it enhance researchers to employs an adept
fusion or hybrid technologies anchored on an artistic and systematic creation
of activities intended to bring the 21st century learners to a
noteworthy and unforgettable learning experiences.       

TheDepEd authorities formulated policies and programs,
initiated projects for them to realized the importance of technology in the
educational world .This has also been done in Indonesia, Malaysia, Uzbekistan
and Vietnam. In Asia and the pacific, including emergingcountries, teachers in
primary, secondary and tertiary levels are being trained in the use of ICT in
education with varying degree of scope. Most of the training programs carry
general objectives aimed at developing awareness, knowledge and skills in
either the use of computers in teaching and learning (IPS, 2003

 

 

 

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Figure 1

Paradigm
of the Study

 
( Input )

 
( Process )

 
( Output )

 
 
 
 
 
. ICT instructional
materials and
capability of teachers
to use technology in
grade 10 mathematics
instruction
 
. Constraints
 
encountered by
 
teachers using ICT in grade 10
mathematics instruction
 

 
.
Descriptive
 
Survey
 
.
Participant
 
Observation
 
.Questionnaire
 
.
Statistical
 
treatment
and
 
 analysis of
 
data
 

 
 
.
Effective grade 10
 
 mathematics
 
instruction using
 
adequate ICT tools
 
 and materials by
 
well trained
 
teachers
 
.
Design strategic
 
plan in solving
 
 constraints in the
 
 use of ICT in
 
mathematics
 
 instruction
 
 
 

 

 

 

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Statement of the Problem

The
researcher aim to develop ICT inMathematics Instructions among grade 10
Learners in the public secondary schools of Burgos, SchoolsDivision of La Union
that will identify, determine, suggest and develop particular technologies to
fit the needs and desire of people moving around the educational world.

Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:

1.  
What
is the extent of adequacy of  ICT
instructional materials? 

2.  
What
is the level of capability of teachers to use technology in mathematics
instructions?

3.  
What
is the degree of seriousness of constraints encountered by teachers in the use
of technology in mathematics instructions?

4.  
What
is the degree of effectiveness of solutions to solve or minimize

the   constraints encountered by teachers in the
use of technology

in   mathematics instructions?

Null Hypotheses

          The null
hypotheses of this research were the following:

1.  
There
is no significant difference between the perception on theadequacy of  ICT instructional materials.

2.  
There
is no significant difference between the perception  on the  capability of teachers to use technology in
mathematics instructions.

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3.  
There
is no significant difference between perceptionon the constraints encountered
by teachers in the use of technology in mathematics instructions.

4.  
There
is no significant difference between perception on the  effectiveness of solutions to solve or
minimizethe   constraints encountered by
teachers in the use of technology   in  
mathematics instructions.