Biomes are defined as a large, distinctive complex of plant communities
created and maintained through climate. Biomes are ecological areas – plants
and animals. Abiotic factors are what characterizes a certain biome. Abiotic
factors are non-living factors such as climate, pH, temperature, and etc.
Abiotic factors in one way dictate the kind of organisms that thrive in the
biome, only those that are able to adapt there are those that can thrive. A
biome differs from an ecosystem. An ecosystem includes both biotic and abiotic
factors in a certain area, and how these factors interact with each other.
While biomes would include the abiotic and biotic factors that a geographic
area would include the organisms living in there.
Botanists, ecologists, biologists, anthropologists, and climatologists,
classify biomes in different ways. Some classifies them into 6 types of biomes.
These are Tundra, Grassland, Forest, Desert, Marine, and Freshwater. Other
scientist classifies them into different biomes, these are Tropical rainforest,
Deciduous forest, and Taiga.
Tundra is known as the coldest type of biomes, and
also has two types: Arctic Tundra and Alphine Tundra. Grasslands are lands dominated with hectares of grass than
tress. Desert is characterized as the hot and dry, coastal, semiarid, and
lastly cold. Marine
biomes cover the ¾ surface of earth. Freshwater, have less than 1% of salt
concentration. Taiga, on the other hand, is the
largest biome in the world and can be found in cold regions. Deciduous forests,
known as the most notable because they can survive 4 seasons and they can be
found in Eastern US, China, Canada, Europe, and Japan. Tropical rainforest
occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season –
all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be
referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
Autotrophic organisms can subsist in an
exclusively inorganic environment because they can manufacture their own
complex organic compounds from inorganic raw materials taken from the
surrounding media. Since the molecules of these raw materials are small enough
and soluble enough to pass through cell membranes, autotrorophic organisms do
not need to pretreat, or digest their nutrients before taking
them into their cells.
Heterotrophic organisms mostly bacteria, fungi,
and animals are incapable of manufacturing their own complex organic compounds
from simple inorganic nutrients. Hence they must obtain prefabricated molecules
from the environment. Many of the organic molecules found in nature are too
large to be absorbed unaltered through cell membranes, and they must first be
broken down into smaller, more easily absorbable molecule units
and they must be digested.
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs can be found in biomes, since biomes are
geographic area that has an organisms living in there. Autotrophs, obtains
chemical energy through oxidation to make an organic substance from an
inorganic substance, through the use of photosynthesis which utilizes light
energy and by obtaining nutrients. While Heterotrophs, depend on autotrophs for
organic substance since it’s organism are unable to produce organic substance
from inorganic ones. Heterotrophs depend on autotrophs for organic substances,
which heterotrophs will utilize to produce energy. Both play an essential roles
in food chains and nutrient cycling.
The absence of one member or one abiotic factor can affect all the
parties of the ecosystem. It is because, biotic members of an ecosystem,
together with their abiotic factors depend on each other. Ecosystems are the
foundations of the biosphere and they determine the health of the entire earth
system. It is a vital life-support that provide services to human life, its
well-being and to social development. Unfortunately, ecosystems have been
disrupted and even destroyed by natural calamities such as floods, earthquakes,
storms and volcanic eruptions. Abuse of human activities or human actions to
the environment have also contributed to the disturbance of many ecosystems and