Abstract education system. The gender inequality, quality of education

Abstract

Education system of any
country is its backbone upon which the overall development and success is
dependent to a great degree. In Pakistan, the education system has been a major
concern since its independence. Even in the modern age, our schooling system is
far behind as compared to other developed countries and there is a dire need of
improvement. Everyone knows the need of improvement however, due to some odd
reasons, the overall progress seems non-existent, and all the initiatives to
improve the system are either incompetent or too ambitious to achieve.
Different political, social and some religious factors have been highlighted as
major hurdles in the way of improving our overall education system. The gender
inequality, quality of education and different schools for students with
affordability are major concerns that still needs to be addressed. Some of the
initiatives have been taken and vision but we are failed to achieve that goals.

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Keywords:
Education
for all, EPA, Millennium Development Goal , MDG, Gender parity.

Education System of Pakistan in Details

Education
system in Pakistan is evolving though not satisfactorily, but its gradually
improving. Until 2013 there was significant religious intolerance in Pakistan as
compared to today. Its current budget on education has always been neglected and
it’s still happening due to its military expenditures or chaos of instability
in politics and corrupt governance system. Gender parity and education for all
(EPA) and Millennium development goal (MDG) was the most focal areas that need
to be achieved by end of 2014 and 2030 respectively but Pakistan failed to
achieve EPA due to inadequate and unstable governance system and lacking behind
MDG’s yearly goals.

There
are three different schools operating in Pakistan based on English, Urdu and
Madrassa or religious system. There are lots of private school operating in
Pakistan but their quality is better than of government there exist challenges
for  cost and affordance to  common people who are mostly living under
poverty. Most of  private schools offer
quality education with high cost. The facilities, infrastructure and  source of knowledge are mostly contains male
dominancy and bellicose towards India due to rivalry between both countries   (Hussain, 2015;  Farooq, M. S. & Kai, 2017)

Types
Of School Systems:

English
medium, Urdu medium and Madrassa schools are currently operating all over
Pakistan. English medium or private schools are rated highly in Pakistan due to
their adoption to English language which is consider a job priority and student
takes both metric or advance matric examinations in these schools. But it’s
also a concern of hefty fesses to students and becoming a business in Pakistan.
In contrast public schools which are mostly owned by Govt. are generally target
for lower middle class as due to limited income and affordance to facility in
private sector. Books are provided by relevant board to students all over in
public schools. Punishment and rote learning are two aspects of public and
madrassa schools that haunt the progressive abilities of students. (Hussain, 2015; Farooq, M. S. & Kai, 2017)

Third
type is madrassa schools in Pakistan which are mostly religiously motivated and
are subject to militant influence . These madrassa’s are subject to carry the
1836 million students of Pakistan with enrollment rate of 62% and 38%
respectively for boys and girls according to Pakistan Education Statistics
2013-14. These madrasas are mostly privately run and based on sectarian
influence prominently Shia and Sunnis. The Sunni sect is further divided into
Ahl e Hadith, Deobandi, Brelvi and Jamat e Islami. These groups have foreign
support as well e.g. Shia and Ahle Hadith 
get donations and supporting funds from Iran and  Sudia Arabia respectively. (Hussain, 2015; Farooq, M. S. & Kai, 2017)

Quality
and Quantity of Schools:

The
quality of education of these all schools always been in debate. Although the
private schools offers better quality and facilities but as it is growing as
business so now there quality of teaching staff , martials and deliverance of
rich education becomes questionable. The quality of Govt. public schools lack
behind compared to private sector. There are no proper facilities even
buildings for students teachers are poorly qualified and trained and much in
part of promoting gender parity too. No proper policies exists for all
education systems even if some policies do there is no proper governance and
deliverance system for implementation. Some of the facilities are not properly
used due to unqualified staff and lack of proper management.

There
are currently 260,903 education intuitions are working across Pakistan system
in which 180,846 are public institutions and 80,057 are private institutions
which account of 69% and  31%
respectively of overall education system of Pakistan. The no of madrassa
schools are not account in these figures but there is vast majority of
madrassa  schools which account for 5% of
total education in Pakistan. (Hussain,
2015; Farooq, M. S. & Kai, 2017)

 

 

Gender
Biasness and Other Factors:

Gender
inequality is seen as major factor in Pakistan education system with much
stereotype in regarding the role of  male
and female . Several studies (Hussain,
2015; Nazar, Österman & Björkqvist, 2017;) 
shows  that  most of curriculum are focused on males
leaving female into domestic sphere with male dominancy in both religious leadership  and as a defenders. The students from  private schools shown to have positive
tolerance toward equality of gender with female and males both response
positive and higher then both public schools and madrasa.  In fact both madrassa and public schools have
separate classes or schools for males and females and have least score in
gender equality giving male a dominant position in society according to survey
conducted. (Nazar, Österman &
Björkqvist, 2017; Hussain, 2015)

Most
of the textbooks sources are composed of  perceived enmity toward India . The contents
similarity between text books of all the private English, public Urdu medium. The
pretext of books are projected as enemy of Pakistan the creation of Muslim
Pakistan from Hindus. The analysis of different data shows that most context of
knowledge sources clearly indicate the identity of “Muslim Pakistani and
non-Muslim other”.  In enmity toward
India all sectors of schools have almost same source of  knowledge and pretext. According to survey
private schools have shown least bellicose toward India as compared to public
and madrassa schools with male of madrasa of highest bellicose toward India
following public schools. It also noted that the social interaction score is
least for females in madrassa schools. (Nazar, Österman & Björkqvist, 2017; Farooq, M. S. & Kai, 2017; Hussain, 2015)

 

 

Education For All and MDG:

In vision
of 2030 Pakistan is set to acquire Millennium Development Goal (MDG )  and by 2015 EFA  goal but current progress is lacking to
achieve that vision and tactical analyst are taking measures to develop
facilities in institutions to overcome this issue.
(M. S. & Kai, 2017; Hussain,
2015)  

MDG goals:

1.     
Universal Primary Education(UPE) is set to be
achieved by the end of 2015 for all the boys and girls across Pakistan. In 2013
statistics there were in increased in enrollment rate with Punjab leading with
62% , Sindh 52% , KPK 54% and Baluchistan 42% and also seen in dropout rate but
still it is behind the annual target of MCGs. (Hussain, 2015; Farooq, M. S. & Kai, 2017)

2.     
The goal 2 of MDG 
is to eliminate gender inequality to primary and secondary education by
2005 and 2015 by all levels of education. There is spark in literacy rate of
male and female with 71% for male and 48% for female in 2012-13. Province wise
Punjab has 71% for male 54% for female, Sindh has 72% and 48%, KPK has 70% and
35% and Baluchistan has 62% and 35% respectively for male and female. (Hussain, 2015; Farooq, M. S. & Kai, 2017)

According
to EPA review report 2014 Despite several and repeated policies Pakistan is
still lagging behind to achieve EFA goal in Primary education. The current
gross enrollment rate is 85.9% but it should be 100% by the end of 2015-16 to
acquire EFA goal. Total of 68.5% are going to school of  estimated children of 21.6 million of age 6-9
with ratio of 8.2 or 56 & for boys and 6.5 million or 44% for girls.
Economic survey of Pakistan shows that in 2013-14 more students from Urban
areas are going to schools than Rural areas. (Hussain, 2015; Farooq, M. S. & Kai, 2017)

Problems and issues

Gender
parity, public and madrasa schools and EPA are major problems that still exist
in palace. Many of the previous policies although gives positive results but
it’s clearly not of for now. There is many factors involving halt to achieve
goals from political instability, corruption, religiously driven social
behavior and lack of quality in public and madrassa schools and effective
policies to control cost of education in private sector.

Gender Inequality:

Gender
inequality still exist most commonly in rural areas and acceptance and equality
of female students is not as dominant as in private school sectors. Although
EPA programs and policies adopted to counter this issue shows positive results
but still there is abundant no of public madrassa schools where availability of
quality teaching staff  and biased martials
of textbooks based only on male leadership. Women are ignored and limited only
to home or domestic sphere. Female teachers are also subject of gender parity
as the current working or teaching females feel pressure from society which are
mostly partially educated and feels some harassment in some areas. (Hussain, 2015; 
Farooq, M. S. & Kai, 2017; 
Aziz, Bloom, Humair, Jimenez, Rosenberg & Sathar ,2014 )

 

Lack of Planning and Funds:

There is
vast gap in planning and execution of plan. Most of the planning goes in vein
due to bad governance system and corruption. There is partial to no check and
balance for the implementation of policies. Pakistan is set to achieve EPA
status by end of 2014 but it’s still in process with failure.  Lack of funds, management and corrupt
governance system are also major factor the education sector is not always been
in priority in Pakistan.  (Nazar, Österman & Björkqvist, 2017; Hussain, 2015; 
Farooq, M. S. & Kai, 2017; 
Aziz, Bloom, Humair, Jimenez, Rosenberg & Sathar ,2014 )

Flaws in Training and Selection
process:

The
teacher and academic learning process of Pakistan’s education system is rated
poorest due to lack of competency in teaching and learning process. There is no
adequate programs for teaching and selection process.  Lack in courses for training teachers , poor
selection process and  lack of competency
cause our quality of education system rated poorly compared to other countries.
(Nazar, Österman & Björkqvist, 2017; Hussain, 2015; 
Farooq, M. S. & Kai, 2017; 
Aziz, Bloom, Humair, Jimenez, Rosenberg & Sathar ,2014 )

Cost  and Facilities:

Cost of
education is also a factor for private education but these private sectors are
located in rich area only. Reforms in public and madrasa schools are not taking
palace progressively specially in madrassa schools. They lack in facilities,
infrastructure, funds and management. Due to higher cost in private schools
people take their children to public or madrasa schools.  (Nazar, Österman & Björkqvist, 2017; Hussain, 2015; 
Farooq, M. S. & Kai, 2017; 
Aziz, Bloom, Humair, Jimenez, Rosenberg & Sathar ,2014 )

Conclusion & Discussion

It is a
sad fact that quality education is a rare commodity in Pakistan. People who
can’t afford premium schools and institutions usually struggle to get the basic
education they need to survive the unforgiving competition we face in the
modern age. Political bodies in Pakistan have failed to realize the need of
improvement in our education system and the allocated budget in each regime, is
quite disappointed. People have to rely on private institutes to get the best
education while Government’s policy for education has been failing citizens of
Pakistan for a long while now. Government’s failure is not the only reason for
our very slow improvements in education system. There are religious factors
too. Although our religion never forbade to acquire knowledge other than
religion, many religious teachers/scholars consider worldly knowledge as
fruitless and that detour the mindset of many people, especially the ones in
rural areas. These problems have been there since the inception of Pakistan and
they are still persistent. If we have want to improve our system, we not only
need to broaden our mindset but also, make Government responsible of all the
deficiencies found in our current education system.  

There is
also not active roles are being played for gender equivalence and EFA.  It is only on papers only  urban areas with  rich sectors are covered  and far from implementation in madrasa, public
schools systems of most of  rural areas.
The rural areas always been neglected so there’s no existence of  proper education infrastructure and
facilities. The present education infrastructure and facilities either are
misused or not present due to improper checkups and governance. Wide
arrangement of policies, allocation of funds 
and special governance system for implementation needs to be made to
address these issues. There also needs awareness programs and plans for common
people and society to stabilize gender impairment and give equal opportunities
for girls and boys.