A rules that we use to understand the world

A straightforward approach to comprehend this question would be to look at the labellings on food packages and the assumptions we draw from them. Deluding labels such as “sugar free” and “fat free” are created to allow us to misinterpret and expect that the product must be healthy or won’t make us fat. The different ways of knowing are unconsciously implemented in determining our thoughts and actions.The commonly used concepts are established as the ways of knowing (WoK) which include reason, sense perception, emotion, faith, language, intuition, memory and imagination. They are a set of ideas or rules that we use to understand the world around us. (Lanterna.education, 2015) WoK can aid our decision making by building up viewpoints in the different areas of knowledge (AoK), including mathematics, social sciences, human sciences, the arts, language, history, ethics, religious knowledge systems and indigenous knowledge systems. Mathematics is one of the AoK which is the study of science of logic of patterns, numbers and arrangement to describe nature. (Livescience, 2013) In mathematics, there is only right or wrong, nothing between. For example, 2 + 2 = 4, this statement is recognized as correct internationally. Both inductive and deductive reasoning are used. Deductive reasoning is arriving at a conclusion logically, from statements that are valid. (Study.com, n.d.) We know that square are quadrilateral with four congruent sides and four right angles. If shown a picture of a shape with the above characteristics, we are able to deduce from the facts that the shape is a square. On the other hand, inductive reasoning is establishing conclusions based on sets of observations. (Comet.lehman, n.d.) For example, using mathematical induction formula S(n) = (n (n+1)) / 2, with S being the sum of all positive integers including n. When the value of ‘n’ is equalled to 1, the equation deduces n is equalled to 1. ( 1 (1+1)) / 2 ) We know that the sum of 1 is 1, ergo this formula is proven to be true. It is assumed that it will be true for the sum of k + 1. If it true for k + 1, then it must be true for k + 2 and so on, which means it is true for any given positive integer. (Comet.lehman, n.d.) Therefore, we can presume that logical reasoning is used to shape the conclusions that we reach to form absolute correct or incorrect answers. Social science is the study of human society and social relationships. Psychology studies mind and behavior of individuals. (ESRC, 2016) Using biological and cognitive aspects of behaviorism, emotion acts as an important role when shaping conclusions. The Kin Selection Theory of Altruism hypothesized that individuals have a larger contingency to sacrifice themselves for relatives than non-relatives as it is augmented into our survival genes. (Britannica Kin Selection, 2009) An experiment was done to prove this derivation by investigating kidney donors. Out of the 39 potential kidney donors, 86% of parents agreed to donate, 47% of the siblings were willing to donate. 27 of 39 donors were emotionally attached to the donor while 8 of the non willing donors were emotionally close to the recipient. (Kin Selection Theory of Altruism, n.d.) This study recognizes how emotions intercede with reason as donating a kidney will jeopardize our own health, risking the possibility of hypertension, hernias and possibly death. However, not every action revolves only around relatives. Thence, the social exchange theory can be applied, it elucidate altruism on a cognitive level. It is believed that altruism does not exist unless the benefit outweighs the cost in that specific situation. (Social exchange theory, n.d.) When a friend asks for help about a simple question, would you offer to help? Most people would say yes. This is because the benefits outweigh the cost. It only takes minutes to explain and that person could teach you something else in the future while friendships may grow. However, using the empathy-altruism and empathy joy hypothesis, helping regardless of any personal gains and finding pleasure in others’ relief, the way of thinking is different, however the final action is the same. Considering the theories regarding altruism, it can be concluded that emotion influences our actions.In short, we are persuaded by reason, however moved by emotion. The laws of logic is the starting point for all our reasoning, thus shaping our conclusions but we cannot prove them in terms of any more fundamental laws. Reason is used to justify our actions or answers to ourselves and to others. However, emotion may be a more practical and workable choice of shaping conclusions at times. When talking to children about their fears of the dark, or phobias of snakes, it is useless to apply logic to persuade them that their thoughts don’t make sense. They are still convinced that there is a problem. Therefore, emotions drive our actions in this situation. (Lamia, M.C., 2010) Most decision making is purely based on emotion, and the conclusion we devise should be justified with reason. When a conclusion is completely based off emotion, it may not be a fitted concept. Hence, reason is needed to modify and reflect upon our thinking and guide us back to a more cultivated conclusion. A balance between emotion and reason is established in order to create the perfect conclusion. (Alvarez M., 2016)However, some may argue that the WoK are debatable and are only agreeable to a certain extent as the encounter for personal knowledge is not acknowledged. (The Rule of balance, n.d.) The branches that make up the WoK may also be limited and restricted to all the other possible WoK found in humankind’s vast combined knowledge throughout history. The universal concepts of the AoK and WoK are presumed as ‘assumption neutral’, actions that we make may not solely or directionally causal in the conflicts reached. Lastly, concepts are not permanent neither persistent across the AoKs therefore it is impractical to predict their influences upon their influences on the WoKs.