A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. It takes advantage of the body’s natural ability to learn how to eliminate most diseases that enter the body. An English country doctor, Edward Jenners, created the first-ever vaccine for smallpox. Smallpox causes severe skin problems and dangerous fevers. At age 13 he was he was taught by a surgeon all about science and medicine. At that time, he heard a dairymaid say that she would never get smallpox because she had cowpox. It was a common belief that dairymaids were immune to smallpox. Then in 1764, he began another apprenticeship with George Harwicke. He gained a lot of knowledge for surgical and medical practice. Later on in his medical journey, he studied geology and experimented mostly on human blood. He studied more about cowpox and the protective effects that helped the human body. He figured out that not only did cowpox protect humans against smallpox, but could be transmitted from one person to another as a way of protection. In May 1796, Jenner found a dairymaid that had fresh cowpox sore on her arms and hands and he used the fluid from the sore and injected the fluid into a little boy. The boy developed a fever, and nine days later he felt cold and had a loss of appetite, but on the 10th day, he felt much better. Then two months later, Jenner injected the boy again, but with the fluid from smallpox sore and no disease was developed. In 1797, he sent a paper to the Royal Society explaining his experiment and observations, but the paper got rejected. A year later he added more cases to his experiment and he got it published privately and was broken down into three parts. The book was titled An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, a disease discovered in some of the western counties of England, particularly Gloucestershire and Known by the Name of CowPox. He came up with the name “vaccines” because in Latin the word for cow is “Vacca” and cowpox is “vaccinia”, so he decided to call it a vaccination. The first part of the book was his view concerning the origin of cowpox as a disease of horses transferring to cows. The second part had critical observations relevant to testing his hypothesis on the Edward Jenner went to London to find any volunteers to take the vaccination. After 3 months of searching, he didn’t find anyone who was willing to take the vaccination. The vaccination became popular after the Edward injected the vaccine to a surgeon Henry Cline. Around 1799, doctors George Pearson and William Woodville supported his vaccine and used it on their patients. Edward Jenner created a nationwide survey to prove that people who had cowpox are resistant to smallpox. The results of the survey established that his theory was correct. In the 1800s, it started to spread quickly in England and had reached most of the European countries.Since there was a lack of supply for the vaccine, he could only send to medical contacts and people who requested the vaccination. Doctor John Haygarth accepted the vaccine from Jenner and also sent some material to Benjamin Waterhouse, a professor at Harvard University. Benjamin Waterhouse introduced the vaccine to New England and convinced Thomas Jefferson to use it in Virginia. Jefferson supported the vaccine. Edward Jenner’s vaccine became known worldwide and got rewarded with many honors. He was also awarded money from British Parliament. Jenner devoted most of his time to the vaccination that his own private practice suffered. As he got older he got a one-room hut called the “Temple of Vaccinia”. He helped the poor out for free with his vaccinations. On January 26, 1823, he was found in his study dead because of a massive stroke. Vaccines have a long-term positive impact on our health, better education, and economy. Having vaccines protects children from diseases, which helps raise one’s IQ. Not only do vaccinations help keep humans healthy, but it reduces medical costs for families which keeps them out of debt. It is recognized by the World Health Organization to be the most cost-effective prevention to help keep humans healthy and to promote public health. Vaccinations in Europe for children have protection against 15 diseases and can prevent death and any serious conditions. Keeping kids healthy lets them be able to participate in their education due to increased school attendance. Also helps them continue their growth into a healthy adulthood. Taking vaccinations prevents humans from getting sick which helps lead improvement in productivity, especially while working. A study was done at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill on how much vaccinations cost the US economy. The researchers found that the cost of 10-vaccine-preventable diseases was $8.95 billion in 2015. The flu alone was accountable for $5.8 billion of the costs and pneumonia at $1.86 billion for the health system. Parents need to have their children vaccinated so that they prevent taking care of their sick child, going out of work, decreasing their earnings, and wasting money on medical bills. Having children vaccinated can decrease death rates. The three vaccines that children need to get is for pneumonia, diarrhea, and meningitis. According to John Hopkins of Public Health, about 102 million illnesses were prevented and 3.7 lives were saved due to vaccines. Also, cost of illness/medical bills avoided is $63 billion. It’s a smarter option to take vaccines because it saves lives and money.Parents become more aware of any safety issues that have to do with the vaccines their babies take. In 1988, the World Health Assembly wanted to remove polio from all over the world by 2000. It had to be postponed until 2005, but progress has been successful. Nigeria was the most difficult place to remove the virus. Lots of tension was in the north against the oral polio vaccine(OPV). It has been used all around the world, including some Muslim states, some leaders in the North advised their followers not to let their children take the vaccine with OPV. It was approved for a year and then ended because polio started in African nations and it mainly came from Nigeria. All of Nigeria’s neighboring countries were exposed to polio, including Sudan and Indonesia. The spread of polio wouldn’t have happened if they were allowed to give it out the vaccines and not just base it on the political and religious power. Many people argue that it shouldn’t be forced for kids to take vaccines and that the parent should decide whether or not their kid should take the vaccines or not. The vaccines are meant for humans to be immune to diseases and for the body to not get sick. Many believe that taking vaccination is too much government interference and making “taking vaccines” a law takes away the freedom of choice. Everyone does have a choice in whether or not you can take the vaccines, but the government is seeing it as a public health statement. Many dangerous diseases have spread all over the world and taking vaccines is the best way to stay healthy and alive. The idea on the internet that discusses whether or not vaccines are safe, but health officials are getting scared that it might terrify parents into not taking vaccines anymore. It happened in Britain in 2002, when many vaccines had evidence that they were safe and used in over 90 countries, but many didn’t believe it so vaccine rates went down. The reason for it decreasing was mainly because of media. They debated with health experts who supported vaccines and parents who didn’t and believed that vaccines made their child autistic. Government scientists in Britain spoke up about vaccinations, so the issue became a political debate. A measles outbreak happened in Bulgaria, France, Ukraine, Georgia, and Turkey. It happened because of parents failing to have their children take the necessary vaccines. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, it says that among children born during 1994-2013, vaccinations prevented about 322 million illnesses, 21 million hospitalizations, and 730,000 deaths. Health experts recommend giving HPV vaccine to girls aged 11 or 12 years of age for protection against sexually transmitted viruses. Many parents don’t want that because it will persuade girls to become sexually active at a young age, but vaccines do not increase sexual behavior in young girls. Many of parents concerns were also if the vaccines were being taken with dirty needles or had major side effects. In Latin America, a study was done that showed that the most concern was the price of all the vaccines.